Separation and Purification Systems

  • Klaus D. Timmerhaus
  • Thomas M. Flynn
Part of the The International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)


The major industrial application of low-temperature processing involves the separation and purification of gases. Distillation of liquid air provides the major source of commercial oxygen, nitrogen, neon, argon, krytpon, anxenon. The bulk of the commercial helium is currently obtained from helium-bearing natural gas where the separation is effected by a low-temperature process. The low-boiling components of natural gas, such as methane, ethane, and ethylene, are separated and purified by low-temperature distillations. Low temperatures have also been used commercially to separate hydrogen from coke-oven gas and other sources of impure hydrogen. Even the commercial production of deuterium by cryogenic separation from hydrogen has become a reality.


Heat Exchanger Operating Line Theoretical Plate Reflux Ratio Lower Column 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. F. Barron, Cryogenic Systems, 2 ed., Oxford University Press, New York, 1985, p. 166.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. V. Murphree, Ind. Eng. Chem. 17, 747 (1925).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. D. Holland and A. I. Liapis, Computer Methods for Solving Dynamic Separation Problems, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. E. Latimer, Distillation of Air, Chem. Eng. Progr. 63(2), 35 (1967).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. J. Schade, Large Oxygen Plant Economics and Reliability, Tennessee Valley Authority Symposium, May 8–10, 1979.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. M. Thorogood, Large Gas Separation and Liquefaction Plants, Cryogenic Engineering, Academic Press, London, 1986, p. 391.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Springmann, Cryogenics—Principles and Applications, Chem. Eng. 92(9), 59 (1985).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. R. Brown, Distillation at Low Temperatures, Progress in Cryogenics, Vol. 1, Hey wood and Co., London, 1959, p. 85.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Springmann, Liquefaction of Oxygen, Nitrogen and Argon, Linde Reports on Science Technology, No. 28, 1978.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. M. Flynn, K. D. Timmerhaus, and D. H. Weitzel, Pilot Plant Studies of the Low Temperature Distillation of Hydrogen Isotopes, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 4, Plenum Press, New York, 1960, p. 464.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Streich and V. Linge, Druck- und Temperaturwechseladsorption in Anschluss an Tiefetemperaturzerlegung, Linde Reports on Science and Technology, No. 35, 1983.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Brunauer, P. H. Emmett, and E. Teller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 49, 591 (1938).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus D. Timmerhaus
    • 1
  • Thomas M. Flynn
    • 2
  1. 1.University of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Ball Aerospace Systems GroupBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations