Advertisement

Photovoltaics

Chapter
  • 78 Downloads

Abstract

Photovoltaics deals with the conversion of sunlight directly into electrical energy. All of the photovoltaic devices (solar cells) that are discussed here are fabricated from various semiconductor materials. Photovoltaics is thus based on the fact that a solar photon has an energy hV, can generate electrical carriers in the semiconductor, and thus photocurrent.

Keywords

Solar Cell Barrier Height Sheet Resistance Schottky Barrier Minority Carrier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    K.W. Böer, Solar Energy 19, 525 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.P. McKelvey, Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, Harper & Row (1966).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Wiley (1969).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.S. Yang, Fundamentals of Semiconductor Devices, McGraw-Hill (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.A. Smith, Semiconductors, Cambridge University Press (1964).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.P. Prince, Jour. Appl. Phys. 26, 534 (1955).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.D. Mathers, Jour. Appl. Phys. 48, 3181 (1977).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. van der Ziel, Solid State Physical Electronics, Prentice-Hall (1976).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.G. Milnes and D.L. Feucht, Heterojunctions and Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, Academic Press (1972).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H.J. Hovel, Soler Cells, vol. 11 of Semiconductors and Semi-metals, W.Beer, ed., Academic Press (1975).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.E. Carlson, IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev ED-24, 449 (1977).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.M. Woodall and H.J.Hovel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30 (1977).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.N. Hartley and W.T.Pawlewicz, Proceedings of the DOE Photo-voltaics Program Semi-Annual Review (Oct. 1977).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.J. Stirn and Y.C.M. Yeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 95 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H.J. Hovel, IBM J. Res. Develop. 22, 112 (1978).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Allen Rothwarf, Technical Report IEC/PV/TR/76/5, Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware (1976).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.M. Barnett et al., 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Washington, D.C. (1978) (p. 419 ).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.L. Shay et al., 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Proceedings, p. 540 (1976)(IEEE - New York).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    L.L. Kazmerski, Second Quarter Report, Grant AER 75-19576A01, University of Maine at Orono (April 1977).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L.C. Burton et al., 19th Annual Electronic Materials Conference, Cornell University (July 1, 1977 ).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    C.Y. Wrigley, 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Proceedings, p. 343.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.M. Woodall and H.J.Hovel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 492 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reference 2. Also, S.Wagner et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 229 (1975); J.Shay et al., Jour. Appl. Phys. 47, 614 (1975); M.Bettini et al., Jour. Appl. Phys. 48, 1603 (1977).Google Scholar
  24. M.Bettini et al., Jour. Appl. Phys. 48, 1603 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    A. Yoskikawa and Y. Sakia, Solid-State Electronics 20, 133 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    J.L. Shay, S. Wagner and H.M. Casper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 89 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    K. Yamaguchi et al., Japanese Jour. Appl. Phys. 16, 1203 (1977).Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    K.S. Sree Harska et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 645 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    J.B. DuBow, D.E. Burk and J.R. Sites, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 494 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    R.J. Stirn and Y.C.M. Yeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 95 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    L.C. Burton et al., Jour. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 1741 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    G. Haacke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 622 (1976); A.Nozik, Phys. Rev. B, 6, 453 (1972).Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    A.G. Stanley, Appl. Sol. St. Sci. 5, 251 (1976).Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    R. Hill, Chapter 10 in Active and Passive Thin Film Devices, T.J.Coutts, ed., Academic Press (1978).Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    A. Rothwarf, Technical Report 72-03478 76/1, Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware (1976).Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    L.R. Shiozawa et al., Aerospace Research Laboratories Report ARL 69-0155, Clevite Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio (1969).Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    L.C. Burton, Standard Procedures for CdS-Cu2S Solar Cell Production, University of Delaware Internal Report, Newark, Delaware (1977).Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Reference 18, p. 526.Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    Reference 19, p. 7.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    A.G. Milnes and D.L. Feucht, Heterojunctions and Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, Academic Press (1972).Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    W. Palz et al., Proc. 10th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Palo Alto, CA (IEEE, New York, 1973 ).Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    T.M. Peterson, Ph.D. Thesis (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    L.C. Burton and T.L. Hench, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 612 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    S. Martinuzzi et al., Thin Solid Films 51, 211 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Final Report, NSF/RANN/AER 72-03478 FR/76, Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware (1976).Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    W.M. Kane et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 136 (1966); D.Bonnet, Phys. stat, sol. (a) 11, K135 (1972); D.B.Fraser and H.D.Cook. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 56 (1974).Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Progress Report E (49-18) - 2538, Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware, p. 17 (1977).Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    L.C. Burton et al., Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Baton Rouge, LA (1976).Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    A. Rothwarf, Technical Reports NSF/RANN/SE/GI 34872 A03/TR 75/4 and TR 76/1, Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware (1975 and 1976 respectively).Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    T.S. teVelde, Proc. 8th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Seattle, WA (1970); Energy Conversion 15, 111 (1975).Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    W. DeVaney, S. Lorentz and J. Meakin, Proc. Photovoltaic Measurements Workshop, Baton Rouge, LA (1976).Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    Reference 31,p. 18.Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    K.L. Chopra et al., phys. stat. sol. (a) 45, 665 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    L.C. Burton et al., Jour. Elec. Mater. 7, 159 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    B. Baron et al., Technical Report IEC/PV/TR/78/6, Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware (1978).Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    T.S. teVelde and J. Dieleman, Philips Res. Reports. 28, 573 (1973); R.Hill, Chapter 10 of Active and Passive Thin Film Devices, T.J.Coutts, ed. ( Academic Press, 1978 ).Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    A. Rothwarf, Technical Report NSF/RANN/AER 72-03478 A03/TR 75/3, Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware (1975); A.Rothwarf, Technical Report NSF/RANN/SE/61 34784 A04/TR 76/1, University of Delaware (1976).Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Final Report, NSF/RANN/AER 72-03478 A04 FR76, Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware (March 1977).Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    J. Bougnot et al., International Workshop on CdS Solar Cells, University of Delaware, (1975) (proc. p. 337).Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    K. Okamoto and S. Kawai, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 1130 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    T.S. teVelde, Sol. St. Electron. 16, 1305 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    K.W. Böer, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 49, 455 (1978).Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Final Report, E(49-18) - 2538 FR77, Institute of Energy Conver-sion, University of Delaware (1977) (p. 15 ); L.C.Burton, Univ. of Delaware Memorandum (September 1978 ).Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    N. Romeo et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 807 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Y. Sakurai et al., Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 2115 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    R.H. Bube et al., Jour. Appl. Phys. 48, 3162 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    L.C. Burton, D. Dwight and M. Zeller, Photovoltaic Materials and Device Workshop, Arlington, VA (June 1979).Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    D.E. Carlson and C.R. Wronski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 671 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    C.R. Wronski, IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev. ED-24, 351 (1977).Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    J.L. Shay and J.H. Wernick, Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors, Pergamon Press (1975).Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    M.A. Littlejohn, ERDA National Solar Photovoltaic Program Review Meeting (CONF 760837-P2), p. 890 (1976).Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    J.L. Shay et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 31 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    J. C. Mikkelson and H. Kildal, Jour. Appl. Phys. 49, 426 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    W.R. Runyan, Semiconductor Measurements and Instrumentation, McGraw Hill (1975).Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    L. Marton, Methods of Experimental Phyvics, vol. 6, Solid State Physics, Academic Press (1959).Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    H.W. Brandhorst, ERDA/NASA Report 1022/76/8, Lewis Research Centre, Cleveland, Ohio (1976).Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    A. Rothwarf and H.C. Hadley, Jr., Technical Report NSF/RANN 72-03478 TR 75/2, Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware (1975).Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    E.S.Yang, Fundamentals of Semiconductor Devices, McGraw-Hill (1978).Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    J.J. Oakes et al., Journ. Appl. Phys. 48, 2548 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Wiley-Interscience (1969).Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    O.S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films, Dover (1965).Google Scholar
  82. 81.
    J.I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors, PrenticeHall (1971).Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    W. Devaney et al., Photovoltaic Measurements Workshop Proceedings, Baton Rouge, LA (1976).Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    L.J. vander Pauw, Philips Res. Rept. 13, 1 (1958).Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    L.C. Burton and H.M. Windawi. Jour. Appl. Phys. 47, 4621 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    L.C. Burton et al., Jour. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 1741 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    E.D. Stokes and T.L.Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 425 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    L.C. Burton et al., Photovoltaic Materials and Device Measurement Workshop Proceedings, Arlington, VA (June 1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical Engineering DepartmentVPI & SUBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations