Epidemiologic Aspects of the Relationship Between Temperature and Male Reproduction

  • Alfred Spira
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 286)


The present knowledge about the relationship between temperature and male reproductive functions comes mainly from animal studies, from in vitro experiments and from clinical observations. In animals such as the rat, rabbit, dog, sheep, ram and bull, procedures such as experimental cryptorchidism, scrotal insulation, acute febrile illness, increased ambient temperature and experimental varicocele all alter the spermatogenic functions and inhibit spermatogenesis1.


Semen Quality Febrile Patient Infertile Couple Male Reproduction Acute Febrile Illness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kandeel, R. and Swerdloff, R.S. 1988. Role of temperature in regulation of spermatogenesis and the use of heating as a method for contraception.Fertil. Steril., 49: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nakamura, N. et al. 1989. Impaired DNA synthesis by early pubertal cryptorchid testis in vitro.Arch. Androl., 22: 137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    WHO: Investigation of the infertile couple.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Laven, J.S.E., Haverkorn, M.J. and Bots, R. 1988. Influence of occupation and living habits on semen quality in men (scrotal insulation and semen quality).Europ. J. Obstet. Gvnecol. Reprod. Biol., 29: 137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zorgniotti, A.W. and MacLeod, J. 1973. Studies in temperature, human quality and varicocele.Fertil. Steril., 24: 854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    MacLeod, J. and Hotchkiss, R.S. 1941. The effect of hyperpyrexia upon spermatozoa counts in men.Endokrinologie. 28: 780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Robinson, D., Rock, J. and Menkin, M.E. 1968. Control of human spermatogenesis by induced changes of intrascrotal temperature.Jama. 204: 290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Procope, B.J. 1965. Effect of repeated increase of body temperature on human sperm cells.Int. J. Fertil., 10: 333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spira, A. 1984. Seasonal variations of sperm characteristics.Arch. Androl., 12: 23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rock, J. and Robinson, D. 1967. Effect of induced intrascrotal hypothermia on testicular function in man.Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 29: 217.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mieusset, R., Bujan, L. and Mansat, A. 1987. Hyperthermia and human spermatogenesis: enhancement of the inhibitory effect obtained by “artificial cryptorchidism”.Int. J. Androl., 10: 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tokuyama, I. 1963. Quoted by Lebion, C.P., Steinberger, E. and RoosenRunge, E.C. in: Spermatogenesis: Mechanisms concerned with conception. Edited by C.G. Hartman, Oxford, Pergamon, p. 1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfred Spira
    • 1
  1. 1.INSERM U 292Hôpital de BicêtreLe Kremlin - Bicêtre CédexFrance

Personalised recommendations