The Lipid Surface of Triglyceride-Rich Particles Can Modulate (Apo)Protein Binding and Tissue Uptake

  • Donald M. Small
  • Susanne Bennett Clark
  • Anna Tercyak
  • John Steiner
  • Donald Gantz
  • Arie Derksen
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 285)


Plasma lipoproteins are aggregates varying in size from large chylomicrons to small HDL3. They are composed of complex combinations of apoproteins and lipids. The triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, secret ed by the intestine as chylomicrons or by the liver as VLDL, contain a core which is rich in triacylglycerols. Small but varying amounts of cholesterol esters also are contained in the core. The surface lipids are extremely complex and include a variety of phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines and sphingoelins, as well as glycosphingolipids such as cerebrosides and gangliosides. Also present in the surface is cholesterol and small but significant amounts of triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters. In addition the surface contains insoluble and non-exchangeable apolipoproteins, specifically B100 or B43, and exchangeable soluble apolipoproteins such as A-I, A-II, A-IV, C-I, C-II, C-III, and E. The determinants of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein composition are: 1) the metabolism of the cell that secretes the nascent chylomicron or VLDL, 2) the physical exchanges of lipids and apoproteins that occur in plasma, 3) the transfer proteins mediated exchange between core molecules such as triacylglycerols and cholesterol ester and surface molecules such as phospholipids, and 4) the action of lipolytic enzymes such as lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, to produce metabolically important lipid products including fatty acids, monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, and lysophosphatides.


Cholesterol Ester Free Cholesterol Hepatic Lipase Chylomicron Remnant Cholesteryl Oleate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Miller, K.W. and D.M. Small. 1987. Structure of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins: An analysis of core and surface phases, in New Comprehensive Biochemistry, Vol. 14, Plasma Lipoproteins (ed. A.M.Gotto,Jr.), Elsevier Science Publ. B.V. (Biomed. Div.) pp. 1–75.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hamilton, J.A. and D.M. Small. 1982. Solubilization and localiz ation of cholesteryl oleate in egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles:A carbon-13 NMR study. J. Biol. Chem. (Communication) -257:7318–7321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hamilton, J.A., K.W. Miller and D.M. Small. 1983. Solubilization of triolein and cholesteryl oleate in egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles. J. Biol. Chem. -258:12821–12826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hamilton, J.A. and D.M. Small. 1981. Solubilization and localization of triolein in phosphatidylcholine bilayers:A 13C NMR study. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA -78(no.ll): 6878–6882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miller, K. V. and D.M. Small. 1982. The phase behavior of triolein, cholesterol, and lecithin emulsions. J. Colloid & Interface Sci. 89(2):466–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miller, K.W. and D.M. Small. 1983. Triolein-cholesteryl oleatecholesterol-lecithin emulsions: Structural models of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Biochemistry -22:443–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miller, K.W. and D.M. Small. 1983. Surface-to-core and interparticle equilibrium distribution sof triglyceride-rich lipoprotein lipids. J. Biol. Chem. 258:13772–13784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spooner, P.J.R., J.A. Hamilton, D. Gantz, and D.M. Small. 1986. The effect of free cholesterol on the solubilization of cholesteryl oleate in phosphatidylcholine bilayers: A 13C-NMR study. Biochim. et Biophys. Acta -860:345–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spooner, P.J.R. and D.M. Small. 1987. Effect of free cholesterol on incorporation of triolein in phospholipid bilayers. Biochemistry 26:5820–5825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Spooner, P.J.R., S. Bennett Clark, D.L. Gantz, J.A. Hamilton, and D.M. Small. 1988. The ionization and distribution behavior of oleic acid in chylomicrons and chylomicron-like emulsion particles and the influence of serum albumin. J. Biol. Chem. 263(3):1444–1453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ekman, S., A. Derksen and D.M. Small. 1988 The partitioning of fatty acid and cholesterol between core and surfaces of phosphatidylcholine-triolein emulsions at pH 7.4. Biochim. Biophys. Acta -959(3):343–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Spooner, P.J.R., D.L. Gantz, J. A. Hamilton, and D.M. Small. 1990. The distribution of oleic acid between chylomicron-like emulsions, phospholipid bilayers and serum albumin. A model for fatty acid distribution between lipoproteins, membranes, and albumin. J. Biol. Chem. -in press.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Small, D.M. 1986. The Physical Chemistry of Lipids from Alkanes to Phospholipids. Handbook of Lipid Research Series, Vol. 4, , ed. D. Hanahan, Plenum Press, pp. 1–672.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hamilton J.A., S. Bhamidipati, D.R. Kodali and D.M. Small. 1989. The conformation and molecular mobility of 1,2-diacylglycerols in phospholipid bilayers. J. Biol. Chem. -in press.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Breckenridge, W.C. 1978. Stereospecific Analysis of Triacylglycerols. in Handbook of Lipid Research Series, Vol. 1, ed: A. Kuksis, Plenum Press, Chapt. 4, pp. 197–232.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bennett Clark, S., D. Atkinson, J.A.Hamilton, T. Forte, B. Russell, E.B. Feldman, and D.M. Small. 1982. Physical studies of d § 1.006 g/ml lymph lipoproteins from rats fed palmitate-rich diets. J. Lipid Res. -23:28–41.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Feldman, E.B., B.S. Russell, R. Chen, J. Johnson, T. Forte, and S. Bennett Clark. 1983. Diet saturated fatty acid content affects lymph lipoprotein composition and configuration in the rat. J. Lipid Res. 24:967–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Parks, J.S., D. Atkinson, D.M. Small and L.R. Rudel. 1981. Physical characterization of lymph chylomicra and very low density lipoproteins from nonhuman primates fed saturated dietary fat. J. Biol. Chem. -256:12992–12999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hamilton, J.A., D.M. Small and J. Parks. 1983. 1H NMR studies of lymph chylomicra and very low density lipoproteins from nonhuman primates. J. Biol. Chem. -258:1172–1179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Puppione, D.L., S.T. Kunitake, R.L. Hamilton, M.L. Phillips, V.N. Schumaker and L.D. Davis. 1982. Characterization of unusual intermediate density lipoproteins. J. Lipid Res. 23:283–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Patton, G.M., S. Bennett Clark, J.M. Fasulo and S.J. Robins. 1984. Utilization of individual lecithins in intestinal lipoprot ein formation. J. Clin. Invest. -73:231–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Small, D.M., J.W. Steiner, A. Derksen, S. Bennett Clark. 1988. Thermal transitions of phosphatidylcholines on the surface of lipoprotein-like emulsion particles. Biophys. J. 53:211a.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hamilton, J.A. 1989. Interactions of triglycerides with phospholipids: Incorporation into the bilayer structure and formation of emulsions. Biochemistry 28:2514–2520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Derksen, A. and D.M. Small. 1989. Interaction of apoA-1 and apoE 3 with triglyceride-phospholipid emulsion containing increasing cholesterol concentrations. Model of triglyceride-rich nascent and remnant lipoproteins. Biochemistry 28:900–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Derksen, A., S. Ekman and D.M. Small. 1989. Oleic acid allows more apoprotein A-l to bind with higher affinity to large emulon particles saturated with cholesterol. J. Biol. Chem. 264(12)-.6935–6940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Redgrave, T.G. and R.C. Maranhao. 1985. Metabolism of protein free lipid emulsion models of chylomicrons in rats. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta -835:104–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maranhao, R.C, A.M. Tercyak and T.G. Redgrave. 1986. Effects of cholesterol content on the metabolism of protein-free emulsion models of lipoproteins. Biochim. et Biophys. Acta. -875:247–255.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bennett Clark, S. and A. Derksen. 1987. Phosphatidylcholine composition of emulsions influences triacylglycerol lipolysis and clearance from plasma. Biochim. Biophys. Acta -920:37–46.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald M. Small
    • 1
  • Susanne Bennett Clark
    • 1
  • Anna Tercyak
    • 1
  • John Steiner
    • 1
  • Donald Gantz
    • 1
  • Arie Derksen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiophysicsBoston University School of MedicineBostonUK

Personalised recommendations