Cigarette Smoking and Extracranial Carotid Atherosclerosis

  • Grethe S. Tell
  • George Howard
  • Gregory W. Evans
  • Michael L. Smith
  • William M. McKinney
  • James F. Toole
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 273)


Chronic cigarette smoking has been associated with increased risk for atherosclerotic diseases of extracranial carotid arteries in several studies. Angiography was the first method used to image in vivo stenosis — narrowing of the arterial lumen — both in the intracranial and extracranial carotid circulation. Stenosis is usually expressed as percent narrowing of the lumen diameter, and is often used as a measure of arterial disease caused by atherosclerotic plaque lesions. Although angiography has been an important tool studying the relation between various risk factors and atherosclerotic disease, the invasive nature of the procedure limits its application to symptomatic subjects and raises ethical concerns for studies in healthy volunteers.


Cigarette Smoking Current Smoker Carotid Stenosis Carotid Plaque Carotid Atherosclerosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Hennerici, G. Reifschneider G, U. Trockel, A. Aulich, Detection of early atherosclerotic lesions by duplex scanning of the carotid artery, J Clin Ultrasound. 12:455 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. M. von Reutern, Functional and morphological evaluation of the cerebral circulation by ultrasound, in: “Neurology — Proceedings of the XIIIth World Congress of Neurology,” K. Poeck, H. J. Freund, H. Ganshirt, eds., Springer-Verlag, New York (1986) pp. 441.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Glagov, E. Weisenberg, C. K. Zarins, R. Stankunavicius, G. J. Kolettis, Compensatory enlargement of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries, N Engl J Med. 316:1371 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. W. Duncan, R. S. Lees, R. G. Ojemann, S. S. David, Concomitants of atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis, Stroke 8:665 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Candelise, F. Bianchi, F. Galligoni, V. Albanese, G. Bonelli, L. Bozzao, D. Inzitari, F. Mariani, M. Rasura, F. Rognoni, G. Sangiovanni, G Fieschi, Italian multicenter study on reversible cerebral ischemic attacks: III. Influence of age and risk factors on cerebrovascular atherosclerosis, Stroke 15:379 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Bogousslavsky, F. Regli, G. Van Melle, Risk factors and concomitants of internal carotid artery occlusion or stenosis. A controlled study of 159 cases, Arch Neurol 42:864 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Schneidau, M. J. G. Harrison, C. Hurst, H. C. Wilkes, T. W. Meade, Arterial disease risk factors and angiographic evidence of atheroma of the carotid artery, Stroke 20:1466 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Haapanen, M. Koskenvuo, J. Kaprio, Y. A. Kesäniemi, K. Heikkilä , Carotid arteriosclerosis in identical twins discordant for cigarette smoking, Circulation 80:10 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. R. Crouse, J. F. Toole, W. M. McKinney, M. B. Dignan, G. Howard, F. R. Kahl, M. R. McMahan, G. H. Harpold, Risk factors for extracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis, Stroke 18:990 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. S. Tell, G. Howard, W. M. McKinney, Risk factors for site specific extracranial carotid artery plaque distribution as measured by B-mode ultrasound, J Clin Epidemiol. 42:551 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. S. Tell, G. Howard, W. M. McKinney, J. F. Toole, Cigarette smoking cessation and extracranial carotid atherosclerosis, JAMA. 261:1178 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. O’Leary, K. M. Anderson, C. S. Kase, P. A. Wolf, W. B. Kannel,Extracranial carotid atherosclerosis in a general population, the Framingham Study. (Abstract). Stroke 19:143 (1988).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Salonen, K. Seppänen, R. Rauramaa, J. T. Salonen, Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and serum cholesterol levels in Eastern Finland, Arteriosclerosis 8:788 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Heiss, ARIC investigators, Association of ultrasonographic measurements of carotid atherosclerosis with cardiovascular risk factors: The ARIC Study. Presented at the 2nd International Conference on Preventive Cardiology, Washington, D.C., June 1989.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. G. Gostomzyk, W. D. Heller, P. Gerhardt P, P. N. Lee, U. Keil, B-scan ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries within a representative population (MONICA Project Augsburg), Klin Wochenschr. 66(Suppl XI):58 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. Shinton, G. Beevers, Meta-analysis of relation between cigarette smoking and stroke, Br Med J. 298:789 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. A. Donnan, J. J. McNeil, M. A. Adena, A. E. Doyle, G. C. Neill, Smoking as a risk factor for cerebral ischaemia, Lancet ii:643 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stroke — 1989. Recommendations on stroke prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Report of the WHO Task Force on Stroke and Other Cerebrovascular Disorders, Stroke 20:1407 (1989).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grethe S. Tell
    • 1
  • George Howard
    • 1
  • Gregory W. Evans
    • 1
  • Michael L. Smith
    • 1
  • William M. McKinney
    • 2
  • James F. Toole
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Public Health SciencesBowman Gray School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyBowman Gray School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA

Personalised recommendations