Cigarette Smoking and Extracranial Carotid Atherosclerosis
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Chronic cigarette smoking has been associated with increased risk for atherosclerotic diseases of extracranial carotid arteries in several studies. Angiography was the first method used to image in vivo stenosis — narrowing of the arterial lumen — both in the intracranial and extracranial carotid circulation. Stenosis is usually expressed as percent narrowing of the lumen diameter, and is often used as a measure of arterial disease caused by atherosclerotic plaque lesions. Although angiography has been an important tool studying the relation between various risk factors and atherosclerotic disease, the invasive nature of the procedure limits its application to symptomatic subjects and raises ethical concerns for studies in healthy volunteers.
KeywordsCigarette Smoking Current Smoker Carotid Stenosis Carotid Plaque Carotid Atherosclerosis
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