Homes for Children in a Changing Society

  • Louise Chawla
Part of the Advances in Environment, Behavior, and Design book series (AEBD, volume 3)


This chapter reviews research and design advances in housing for chil dren and adolescents in developed nations. The places it focuses upon are the dwelling and the housing site—the places which form the primary matrix of their lives. Even when parents of infants and preschoolers seek child care, prevalent arrangements are in-home care and family day care. Across the span of a year, school-age children and adolescents spend more than four-fifths of their time out of school, which means primarily in or near the home. At its best, housing lends itself to the creation of settings where families can thrive. This chapter reviews recent attempts to define housing at its best.


Child Care Child Care Center Outdoor Play Residential Satisfaction Housing Corporation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aiello, J. R., Thompson, D. E., &Baum, A. (1985). Chüdren, crowding, and control: Effects of environmental stress on social behavior. In J. F. Wohlwill &W. Van Vliet (Eds.), Habitats for children. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Baird, J. C., &Lutkus, A. D. (1982). From spatial perception to architectural construction. In J. C. Baird &A. D. Lutkus (Eds.), Mind, child, architecture. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  3. Baldassari, C., Lehman, S., &Wolfe, M. (1987). Imaging and creating alternative environ ments with children. In C. Weinstein &T. G. David (Eds.), Spaces for children (pp. 241– 268). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbey, G. F. (1974). Anthropological analysis of the home concept. In D. H. Carson (Ed.), Man-environment interactions (Vol. 3, pp. 143–149). Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson &Ross.Google Scholar
  5. Barry, V. T. R. (1982). Kidspace: Family life in the city. Children Today, 11 ,11–15.Google Scholar
  6. Bassuk, E. L., Rubin, L., &Lauriat, A. S. (1986). Characteristics of sheltered homeless families. American Journal of Public Health ,76(9), 1097–1101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berg, M., &Medrich, E. A. (1980). Children in four neighborhoods. Environment and Behavior, 12(3) ,320–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bethany, M. (1981). What children want. In C. Donovan (Ed.), Living well. New York: Quadrangle/New York Times.Google Scholar
  9. Bevington, C. B. (1987a, May). A quilt-plan. Interior Design ,pp. 326–327.Google Scholar
  10. Bevington, C. B. (1987b). Housing the homeless mother and child. Women &Environments, 10(1) ,16–17.Google Scholar
  11. Bjorklid, P. (1985). Children’s outdoor environment from the perspectives of environmental and developmental psychology. In T. Garling &V. Valsiner (Eds.), Children within environments (pp. 91–106). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  12. Bosselmann, P. (1987). Redesigning residential streets. In A. V. Moudon (Ed.), Public streets for public use (pp. 321–330). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  13. Bouchard, C., Beaudry, J., &Chamberland, C. (1985). An ecological approach to child maltreatment: Relationship between residential satisfaction and the incidence of child abuse. (Mimeo, Laboratoire de recherche en écologie humaine et sociale, Université du Québec a Montréal.)Google Scholar
  14. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Caldwell, B. (1968). Inventory of home stimulation. Little Rock, AK: Center for Early Development &Education.Google Scholar
  16. Canada Mortgage &Housing Corporation. (1978). Play spaces for preschoolers. Ottawa: Author.Google Scholar
  17. Canada Mortgage &Housing Corporation. (1979). Play opportunities for school-age children, 6 to 14 years of age. Ottawa: Author.Google Scholar
  18. Chawla, L. (Ed.). (1986). Latchkey children in their communities [Special issue]. Children’s Environments Quarterly, 3(2).Google Scholar
  19. Churchman, A. (1980). Chüdren in urban environments: The Israeli experience. Ekistics, 47(281), 105–109.Google Scholar
  20. Churchman, A., &Ginsberg, Y. (1981). Housing type and children’s outdoor play-Is there a relationship? Paper presented at the Eighth World Conference of the International Playground Association, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, U., Hill, A. B., Lane, C. G., McGinty, T., &Moore, G. T. (1979). Recommendations for child play areas. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Center for Architecture and Urban Planning Research.Google Scholar
  22. Cooper, C. C. (1975). Easter Hill Village. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cooper-Marcus, C. (1974). Children’s play behavior in a low-rise, inner-city housing development. In D. H. Carson (Ed.), Man-environment interactions (Vol. 3, pp. 197–211). Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson &Ross.Google Scholar
  24. Cooper-Marcus, C. (1978). Remembrance of landscapes past. Landscape ,22(3), 34–43.Google Scholar
  25. Cooper-Marcus, C., &Hogue, L. (1977). Design guidelines for high-rise family housing. In D. Conway (Ed.), Human response to tall buildings (pp. 240–277). Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson &Ross.Google Scholar
  26. Cooper-Marcus, C., &Sarkissian, W. (1986). Housing as if people mattered. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  27. Csikszentmihalyi, M., &Rochberg-Halton, E. (1981). The meaning of things. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Dejoy, D. M. (1983). Environmental noise and children: Review of recent findings. Journal of Auditory Research, 23 ,181–194.Google Scholar
  29. Eubank-Ahrens, B. (1987). A close look at the users of woonerven. In A. V. Moudon (Ed.), Public streets for public use (pp. 63–79). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  30. Filipovitch, A. J., Juliar, K., &Ross, K. D. (1981). Children’s drawings of their home environment. In A. E. Osterberg, C. P. Tiernan, &R. A. Findlay (Eds.), Design research interactions (pp. 258–264). Washington, DC: Environmental Design Research Association.Google Scholar
  31. Fink, D. (1986). School-age child care: Where the spirit of neighborhood lives. Children’s Environments Quarterly ,3(2), 9–12.Google Scholar
  32. Flade, A. (1986). Evaluation of housing floor plans with regard to meeting family needs. Children’s Environments Quarterly ,3(1), 68–72.Google Scholar
  33. Francis, M. (1985). Children’s use of open space in Village Homes. Children’s Environments Quarterly ,2(4), 36–38.Google Scholar
  34. Franck, K. A. (1985). New households, old houses: Designing for changing needs. Ekistics ,52(310), 22–27.Google Scholar
  35. Franck, K. A., &Ahrentzen, S. (Eds.). (1989). New households, new housing. New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold.Google Scholar
  36. Garbarino, J., &Sherman, D. (1980). High-risk families and high-risk neighborhoods. Child Development, 51 ,188–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garling, T. &Valsiner, V. (Eds.). (1985). Children within environments. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  38. Gaunt, L. (1980). Can children play at home? In P. F. Wilkinson (Ed.), Innovation in play environments. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  39. Gaunt, L. (1987). Room to grow-in creative environments or on adult premises? Scandinavian Housing and Planning Research, 4 ,39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Greenman, J. (1987). Caring spaces, learning places. Redmond, WA: Exchange Press.Google Scholar
  41. Hart, R. (1978). Children’s exploration of tomorrow’s environments. Ekistics ,45(272), 387–390.Google Scholar
  42. Hart, R. (1979). Children’s experience of place. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  43. Hart, R. (1987). Children’s participation in planning and design: Theory, research, and practice. In C. S. Weinstein &T. G. David (Eds.), Spaces for children (pp. 217–239). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harvey, J. (1982). Vandalism in the residential environment. Ottawa: Canada Mortgage &Housing Corporation.Google Scholar
  45. Hatch, C. R. (1984). The scope of social architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  46. Hayden, D. (1982). The grand domestic revolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  47. Hayden, D. (1984). Redesigning the American dream. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  48. Hayward, D. G. (1975). Home as an environmental and psychological concept. Landscape, 20(1), 2–9.Google Scholar
  49. Held, R., &Hein, A. (1963). Movement-produced stimulation in the development of visually guided behavior. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 56 ,872– 876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Homel, R., &Burns, A. (1985). Through a child’s eye: Quality of neighborhood and quality of life. In I. Burnley &J. Forrest (Eds.), Living in cities (pp. 103–115). Sydney: Allen &Unwin.Google Scholar
  51. Huttman, E. D. (1985). Transnational housing policies. In I. Altman &C. Werner (Eds.), Home environments. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  52. Jackson, R. H. (Ed.). (1977). Children, the environment, and accidents. Kent: Pitman Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  53. Johnson, L. C. (1987). The developmental implications of home environments. In C. S. Weinstein &T. G. David (Eds.), Spaces for children (pp. 139–157). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnson, L., Shack, J., &Oster, K. (1980). Out of the cellar and into the parlour. Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.Google Scholar
  55. Kane, D. N. (Ed.). (1985). Environmental hazards to young children. Phoenix: Oryx Press.Google Scholar
  56. Kantor, D., &Lehr, W. (1975). Inside the family. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  57. Keller, S. (1981). Women and chüdren in a planned community. In S. Keller (Ed.), Building for women (pp. 67–75). Lexington, MA: Heath.Google Scholar
  58. Ladd, F. C. (1972). Black youths view their environments: Some views of housing. American Institute of Planners Journal, 38 ,108–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Little, B. R. (1983). Personal projects. Environment and Behavior ,25(3), 273–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lynch, K. (Ed.). (1977). Growing up in cities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  61. McGrath, M., &McGrath, N. (1978). Children’s spaces. New York: Morrow.Google Scholar
  62. McGinty, T., Cohen, U., &Moore, G. T. (1982). Play environments. Final report to the U.S. Dept. of the Army, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, DC (TM 5-803-11).Google Scholar
  63. Mackintosh, E. (1985). Highrise family living in New York City. In E. L. Birch (Ed.), The unsheltered woman (pp. 101–119). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Center for Urban Policy Research.Google Scholar
  64. Michelson, W. (1968). The physical environment as a mediating factor in school achievement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association, Calgary.Google Scholar
  65. Michelson, W. (1977). Environmental choice, human behavior, and residential satisfaction. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Moore, G. T. (1982). Methodological considerations in field studies of developmental psychology and the built environment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Environmental Design Research Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  67. Moore, G. T. (1985). State of the art in play environment research and applications. In J. L. Frost &S. Sunderlin (Eds.), When children play (pp. 171–192). Wheaton, MD: Association for Chüdhood Education International.Google Scholar
  68. Moore, G. T., Lane, C. G., Hill, A. B., Cohen, U., &McGinty, T. (1979). Recommendations for child care centers. Müwaukee: University of Wisconsin-Müwaukee, Center for Architecture and Urban Planning Research.Google Scholar
  69. Moore, R. C. (1986). Childhood’s domain. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  70. Moore, R. C. (1987). Streets as playgrounds. In A. V. Moudon (Ed.), Public streets for public use (pp. 45–62). New York:Google Scholar
  71. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Moore, R. C., &Young, D. (1978). Childhood outdoors: Toward a social ecology of the landscape. In I. Altman &J. F. Wohlwill (Eds.), Children and the environment (pp. 83–130). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  72. Neperud, R. W. (1975). Favorite places. Journal of Environmental Education, 6 ,27–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Noschis, K. (1982). The child in the laboratory. In J. C. Baird &A. D. Lutkus (Eds.), Mind child architecture. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  74. Olds, A. R. (1987). Designing settings for infants and toddlers. In C. S. Weinstein &T. G. David (Eds.), Spaces for children (pp. 117–138). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Olwig, K. R. (1986). The childhood “deconstruction” of nature and the construction of “natural” housing environments for children. Scandinavian Housing and Planning Re search ,3, 129–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Parke, R. D. (1978). Children’s home environments: Social and cognitive effects. In I. Altman &J. F. Wohlwill (Eds.), Children and the environment (pp. 34–81). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  77. Parke, R. D., &Sawin, D. B. (1979). Children’s privacy in the home: Developmental, ecological and child-rearing determinants. Environment and Behavior, 11 ,87–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Peterson, R. B. (1987). Gender issues in the home and urban environment. In E. H. Zube &G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design (Vol. 1, pp. 187–218). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  79. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children (M. Cook, Trans.). New York: International Universities Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pollowy, A.-M. (1977). The urban nest. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson &Ross.Google Scholar
  81. Popenoe, D. (1977). The suburban environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  82. Ritzdorf, M. (1986). Adults only: Children and American city planning. Children’s Environments Quarterly ,3(4), 26–33.Google Scholar
  83. Ritzdorf, M. (1987). Planning and the intergenerational community. Journal of Urban Affairs ,9(1), 79–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rivlin, L. (1986). A new look at the homeless. Social Policy, 16 ,3–10.Google Scholar
  85. Rivlin, L., &Schwartzman, J. (1988). Street chüdren and homeless children [Special issue]. Children’s Environments Quarterly ,5(1).Google Scholar
  86. Robinson, B. E., Coleman, M., &Rowland, B. H. (1986). The after-school ecologies of latchkey chüdren. Children’s Environments Quarterly ,3(2), 4–8.Google Scholar
  87. Royal Dutch Touring Club. (1980). Woonerf. The Hague: Royal Dutch Touring Club.Google Scholar
  88. Rubenstein, J. L., &Howes, C. (1979). Caregiving and infant behavior in day care and in homes. Developmental Psychology, 15 ,1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Saegert, S., &Hart, R. (1978). The development of sex differences in the environmental competence of children. In M. Salter (Ed.), Play. Cornwall, NY: Leisure Press.Google Scholar
  90. Sarkissian, W., &Doherty, T. (1987). Living in public housing. Red Hill, A.C.T.: Royal Australian Institute of Architects Education Division.Google Scholar
  91. Schiavo, R. S. (1988). Age differences in assessment and use of a suburban neighborhood among children and adolescents. Children’s Environments Quarterly ,5(2), 4–9.Google Scholar
  92. Schiavo, R. S. (1987). Home use evaluation by suburban youth: Gender differences. Children’s Environments Quarterly ,4(4), 8–12.Google Scholar
  93. Sebba, R., &Churchman, A. (1983). Territories and territoriality in the home. Environment and Behavior ,15(2), 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shack, J. (1987). Evaluation of a housing demonstration project designed for play and chüd care. In J. Harvey &D. Henning (Eds.), Public environments (pp. 32–41). Washington, DC: Environmental Design Research Association.Google Scholar
  95. Sharp, C. (1984). Environmental design and child maltreatment. In D. Duerk &D. Camp-bell (Eds.), The challenge of diversity (pp. 66–73). Washington, DC: Environmental Design Research Association.Google Scholar
  96. Spirn, A. (1984). The granite garden. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  97. Sweaney, A. L., Inman, M. A., Wallinga, C. R., &Dias, S. (1986). The perceptions of preschool children and their families’ social climate in relation to household crowding. Children’s Environments Quarterly ,3(4), 10–15.Google Scholar
  98. Thornberg, J. M. (1974). Children’s conception of places to live in. In D. H. Carson (Ed.), Man-environment interactions (Vol. 3, pp. 178–190). Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson &Ross.Google Scholar
  99. Van der Ryn, S., &Calthorpe, P. (Eds.). (1986). Sustainable communities. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.Google Scholar
  100. Van Vliet, W. (1983). Families in apartment buildings: Sad storeys for children? Environment and Behavior, 15 ,211–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Van Vliet, W. (1985). The methodological and conceptual basis of environmental policies for children. Prevention in Human Services ,4(1/2), 59–78.Google Scholar
  102. Verktoykassa (1983). Redskap for planlegging av barns naermiljo [Instrument for planning of children’s environment]. Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research.Google Scholar
  103. Verwer, D. (1980). Planning residential environments according to their real use by children and adults. Ekistics ,47(281), 109–113.Google Scholar
  104. Wachs, T. D. (1979). Proximal experience and early cognitive-intellectual development: The physical environment. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 25 ,3–41.Google Scholar
  105. Wachs, T. D., &Gruen, G. E. (1982). Early experience and human development. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wattenberg, B. J. (1987). Baby boom to birth dearth. New York: Pharos.Google Scholar
  107. Weinstein, C. S., &David, T. G. (Eds.). (1987). Spaces for children. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  108. White, B. L., Kaban, B., &Attanucci, J. (1979). The origins of human competence. Lexington, MA: Heath.Google Scholar
  109. Wilson, S. (1980). Vandalism and “defensible space” on London housing estates. In R. V. G. Clarke &P. Mayhew (Eds.), Designing out crime. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  110. Wohlwill, J. F. (1980). The confluence of environmental and developmental psychology: Signpost to an ecology of development? Human Development, 23 ,354–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wohlwill, J. F., &Heft, H. (1987). The physical environment and the development of the chüd. In D. Stokols &I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 281–328). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  112. Wohlwill, J. F., &Van Vliet, W. (Eds.). (1985). Habitats for children. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  113. Wolfe, M. (1978). Childhood and privacy. In I. Altman &J. F. Wohlwill (Eds.), Children and the environment (pp. 175–222). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  114. Zeisel, J., &Welch, P. (1981). Housing designed for families. Cambridge, MA: Joint Center for Urban Studies of MIT &Harvard.Google Scholar
  115. Ziegler, S., &Andrews, H. F. (1987). Children and built environments: A review of methods for environmental research and design. In R. Bechtel, R. Marans, &W. Michelson (Eds.), Methods in environmental and behavioral research (pp. 301–336). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  116. Zinn, H. (1980). The influence of home environments on the socialization of children. Ekistics ,47(281), 98–102.Google Scholar
  117. Zuravin, S. (1987). The ecology of child maltreatment: Identifying and characterizing high-risk neighborhoods. Child Welfare, 66 ,497–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louise Chawla
    • 1
  1. 1.Whitney Young CollegeKentucky State UniversityFrankfortUSA

Personalised recommendations