The Tuberoinfundibular Dopaminergic Neurons of the Brain: Hormonal Regulation

  • John C. Porter
  • Wojciech Kedzierski
  • Nelson Aguila-Mansilla
  • Bernardo A. Jorquera
  • Héctor A. González
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 274)


In the last few decades, our concepts of the mechanisms by which certain brain cells are involved in the regulation of other cells, including other brain cells, have undergone major alterations, and it seems likely that additional changes of equal, if not greater, significance will be forthcoming in the not distant future. Such advances, when they occur, will likely follow the development of new methods or improvement of existing techniques for evaluating various cellular functions, including secretory functions.


Tyrosine Hydroxylase Median Eminence Ovarian Hormone Endocrine Society Molar Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Davis, G.C., A.C. Williams, S.P. Markey, M.H. Ebert, E.D. Caine, C.M. Reichert, and I.J. Kopin, Parkinsonism secondary to intravenous injection of meperidine analogues, Psychiatry Res 1:249–254,1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bruns, B.S., C.C. Chiuech, S.P. Markey, M.H. Ebert, D.M. Jacobowitz, and I.J. Kopin, A primate model of parkinsonism: selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 4546–4550, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Langston, J.W., and P. Ballard, Chronic parkinsonism in humans due to a product of meperidine-analog synthesis, Science 219: 979–980, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Langston, J.W., and PA. Ballard, Jr., Parkinson’s disease in a chemist working with l-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, N Engl J Med 309: 310, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Langston, J.W., MPTP: insights into the etiology of parkinson’s disease, Eur Neurol 1: 2–10, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Porter, J.C., D.D. Nansel, G.A. Gudelsky, M.M. Foreman, N.S. Pilotte, C.R. Parker, Jr., G.H. Burrows, G.W. Bates, and J.D. Madden, Neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin secretion, Fed Proc 39: 2896–2901, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gonzalez, H.A., and J.C. Porter, Mass and in situ activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the median eminence: effect of hyperprolactinemia, Endocrinology 122: 2212–2211 ,1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen, C.L., Y. Amenomori, K.H. Lu, J.L. Voogt, and J. Meites, Serum prolactin levels in rats with pituitary transplants or hypothalamic lesions, Neuroendocrinology 6: 220–227, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fuxe, K., Cellular localization of monoamines in the median eminence and infundibular stem of some mammals, Acta Physiol Scand 58: 383–344, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fuxe, K., and T. Hökfelt, Further evidence for the existence of tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons, Acta Physiol Scand 66: 243–244, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hökfelt, T., The possible ultrastructural identification of tuberoinfundibular dopamine-containing nerve endings in the median eminence of the rat, Brain Res 5: 121–123, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ben-Jonathan, N., C. Oliver, H.J. Weiner, R.S. Mical, and J.C. Porter, Dopamine in hypophysial portal plasma of the rat during the estrous cycle and throughout pregnancy, Endocrinology 100: 452–458,1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Levitt, L., S. Spector, A. Sjöerdsma, and S. Udenfriend, Elucidation of the rate-limiting step in norepinephrine biosynthesis in the perfused guinea-pig heart, J Pharmacol Exp Ther 148: 1–8, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gudelsky, G A., and J.C. Porter, Release of newly synthesized dopamine into the hypophysial portal vasculature of the rat, Endocrinology 104: 583–587, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gudelsky, G.A., and J.C. Porter, Morphine-and opioid peptide-induced inhibition of the release of dopamine from tuberoinfundibular neurons, Life Sci 25: 1697–1702, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haskins, J.T., G.A. Gudelsky, R.L. Moss, and J.C. Porter, Iontophoresis of morphine into the arcuate nucleus: effects on dopamine concentrations in hypophysial portal plasma and serum prolactin concentrations, Endocrinology 108: 767–771, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reymond, M.J., C. Kaur, and J.C. Porter, An inhibitory role for morphine on the release of dopamine into hypophysial portal blood and on the synthesis of dopamine in tuberoinfundibular neurons, Brain Res 262: 253–258, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reymond, MJ., and J.C. Porter, Hypothalamic secretion of dopamine after inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity, Endocrinology 111: 1051–1056, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pilotte, N.S., and J.C. Porter, Dopamine in hypophysial portal plasma and prolactin in systemic plasma of rats treated with 5-hydroxytryptamine, Endocrinology 108: 2137–2141, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okuno, S., and H. Fujisawa, A new mechanism for regulation of tyrosine 3-monooxygenase by end product and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, J Biol Chem 260: 2633–2635, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gudelsky, G.A., D.D. Nansel, and J.C. Porter, Dopaminergic control of prolactin secretion in the aging male rat, Brain Res 204: 446–450, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reymond, M.J., and J.C. Porter, Secretion of hypothalamic dopamine into pituitary stalk blood of aged female rats, Brain Res Bull 1 69–73, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lu, K.H., B.R. Hopper, T.H. Vargo, and S.S.C. Yen, Chronological changes in sex steroid, gonadotropin and prolactin secretion in aging female rats displaying different reproductive states, BiolReprod 21:193–203, 1979.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    González, H.A., W. Kedzierski, and J.C. Porter, Mass and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons of the aged brain: control by prolactin and ovarian hormones, Neuroendocrinology 48: 663–66, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    González, HA., W. Kedzierski, N. Aguila-Mansilla, and J.C. Porter, Hormonal control of tyrosine hydroxylase in the median eminence: demonstration of a central role for the pituitary gland, Endocrinology 124: 2122–2127, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Butcher, R.L., N.W. Fugo, and W.E. Collins, Semicircadian rhythm in plasma levels of prolactin during early gestation in the rat, Endocrinology 90: 1125–1127, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang, P.S., and J.C. Porter, Hormonal modulation of the quantity and in situ activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in neuntes of the median eminence, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 9804–9806, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen, C.L., and J. Meites, Effects of estrogen and progesterone on serum and pituitary prolactin levels in ovariectomized rats, Endocrinology 86: 503–505, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reymond, M.J., J. Arita, C.A. Dudley, R.L. Moss, and J.C. Porter, Dopaminergic neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus of old rats: evidence for decreased affinity of tyrosine hydroxylase for substrate and cofactor, Brain Res 304: 215–223, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sar, M., Distribution of progestin-concentrating cells in rat brain: colocalization of 3H-ORG.2058, a synthetic progestin, and antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase in hypothalamus by combined autoradiography and immunocytochemistry, Endocrinology 23: 1110–1118, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fox, S.R., B.D. Shivers, R.E. Harlan, and D.W. Pfaff, Progesterone receptors in the female rat are localized within dopaminergic neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, but not within pituitary lactotrophs, 68th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, (Abstract #434), p. 139, 1986.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sar, M., Estradiol is concentrated in tyrosine hydroxylase containing neurons of the hypothalamus, Science 223: 938–940, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    MacLusky, N J., and B.S. McEwen, Oestrogen modulates progestin receptor concentrations in some brain regions but not in others, Nature 274: 276–278, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Porter
    • 1
  • Wojciech Kedzierski
    • 1
  • Nelson Aguila-Mansilla
    • 1
  • Bernardo A. Jorquera
    • 1
  • Héctor A. González
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and PhysiologyUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at DallasDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations