Inequalities, Western Roots and Implementation Problems: Three Challenges to a One World Planning Education

  • Farokh Afshar
Part of the Urban Innovation Abroad book series (UIA)


International planning education in the West, and international students’ attitudes to this education have undergone three phases in recent decades. The first was a ‘West Best’ phase; the West was supposed to know best and therefore taught “Western ways” to international students. Separate programs or courses for international students were not considered necessary. When these “Western ways” appeared inappropriate to countries of the South, a “South best” reaction followed. Problems and solutions for such countries appeared so different from those in the West that separate programs were set up to teach about such countries[1].


International Student Planning Education Planning Theory Mutual Learning Implementation Problem 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farokh Afshar
    • 1
  1. 1.University of GuelphCanada

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