Risk Assessment: Extrapolation to Individual Risk

  • Renate D. Kimbrough
  • Philippe A. Grandjean
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 43)


Environmentally related disease is, in principle, preventable. Therefore, public health policies must be developed to minimize the risk from hazardous exposures which may be associated with some environmentally related diseases. An effort must be made to determine what the hazards of specific chemicals might be and how the hazards of one chemical compare with those of another. A variety of environmentally related factors are major determinants for human health: lifestyle (nutrition, smoking, etc.), exposure to infectious agents, and exposure to multiple chemicals and physical factors. However, it is extremely difficult to determine the health risk of low-level exposure to individual environmental pollutants and the impact that current preventive measures make on human health. For example, although a chemical exposure may theoretically cause some effect, in practice, at very low concentrations, many competing elements come into play, and the isolated contribution of individual chemicals to adverse health effects may appear to be of no consequence. Thus, the relationship between human health and environmental pollutants is extremely complex. Further, this relationship becomes even more complicated when considering its health significance on an individual level.


Risk Assessment Heart Attack Chemical Exposure Organophosphorus Compound Hepatic Microsomal Enzyme 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aldridge, N., 1986, The biological basis and measurement of thresholds, Ann. Reviews Pharmacol. and Toxicol., 26:39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ballschmiter, K., Buchert, H., Niemczyk, R., Munder, A., and Severev, M.,1986, Automobile exhausts versus municipal-waste incineration as sources of the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and-furans (PCDF) found in the environment, Chemosphere, 15:901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloom, A.D., ed., 1981, Guidelines for studies of human populations exposedto mutagenic and reproductive hazards. White Plains, NY: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation: pp. 1–140.Google Scholar
  4. Breimer, D.D., 1983, Interindividual variation in drug disposition, clinical implications and methods of investigation, Clin. Pharmacokinetics, 8:371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cooper, S.W., and Kimbrough, R.D., 1980, Acute dimethylnitrosamine poisoning outbreak: A case report, J. Forensic Sciences, 25:874.Google Scholar
  6. Davison, A.N., 1955, The conversion of Schradan (OMPA) and parathion into inhibitors of Cholinesterase by mammalian liver, Biochem. J., 61:203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Durham, W.F., Gaines, T.B., and Hayes, W.J., 1956, Paralytic and related effects of certain organic phosphorus compounds, A.M.A. Arch. Industr. Health, 13:326.Google Scholar
  8. Feinberg, K.R., Cheek, L., Nicholas, R.B., Priest, G. and Whittenberger, J.L., 1986, Causation and financial compensation. Final report of the conference panel. The Institute for Health Policy Analysis. Georgetown University Medical Center 2121 Wisconsin Ave. N.W., Suite 220, Washington, D.C. 20007.Google Scholar
  9. Fouts, J.R., 1970, Some effects of insecticides on hepatic microsomal enzymes in various animal species, Rev. Can. Biol., 29:377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Herzberg, M., Fishel, B., and Wiener, M.H., 1977, Hepatic microsomal induction and its evaluation in a clinical laboratory, Isr. J. Med. Sci., 13:471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ideo, G., Bellate, G., Bellabuono, A., Mocarelli, P., Marocche, A., and Brambilla, P., 1982, Increased urinary D-glucaric acid excretion by children living in an area polluted with tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin (TCDD), Clin. Chenu Acta, 120: 273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Inoue, S., Brown, L. Ravindranath, Y., Ottenbreit, J., 1982, Normal sister chromatid exchange frequency in long term survivors with acute leukemia, Cancer Res., 42:2906.Google Scholar
  13. Jensen, A.A., 1983, Chemical contaminants in human milk, Residue Reviews, 89:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kimbrough, R.D., 1982, Disposition and body burdens of halogenated aromatic compounds possible association with health effects in humans, Drug Metab. Reviews, 13:485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kimbrough, R.D., 1984, Relationship between dose and health effects, Clinical Lab. Med., 4:507.Google Scholar
  16. Kimbrough, R.D., 1987, Early biological indicators of chemical exposure and their significance for disease, Dahlem Conference (in press).Google Scholar
  17. Kimbrough, R.D., Mitchell, F.L., and Houk, V.N., 1985, Trichloroethylene: An update, J. Toxicol. and Environ. Health, 15:369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kimbrough, R.D. and Simonds, M., 1986, Compensation of Victims exposed to environmental pollutants, Arch. Environ. Health, 41:185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kociba, R.J. and Schwetz, B.A., 1982, Toxicity of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), Drug Metabolism Reviews, 13:387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. NRCC (National Research Council of Canada), 1981, Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins: limitation to the current analytical technique, Pub. No. 18576, NRCC/(National Research Council), Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  21. Patterson, D.G., Hoffman, R.E., Needham, L.L., Roberts, D.W., Bagby, J.R., Pirkle, J.L., Falk, H., Sampson, E.J., and Houk, V.N., 1986, Levels of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dixoin in adipose tissue of exposed and control persons in Missouri, JAMA, 256:2683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rappe, C, and Buser, H.R., 1980, Chemical properties and analytical methods, in: Halogenated Biphenyls Terphenyls, Naphthalenes, Dibenzodioxins and Related Products, R.D. Kimbrough, ed., Elsevier-North Holland, Amsterdam, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Ryan, J.J., Schecter, A., Lizotte, R., Sun, W.F., and Miller, L., 1985, Tissue distribution of dioxins and furans in humans from the general population, Chemosphere, 14:929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Setlow, R.B., 1978, Repair deficient human disorders and cancer, Nature, 271:713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stanley, J.S., Boggess, K.E., Onstot, J., Sack, T.M., Remmers, J.C., Breen, J., Kutz, F.W., Carra, J., Robinson, P., and Mack, G.A., 1987, PCDDs and PCDFs in human adipose tissue from the EPA FY 82 NHATS Repository, Chemosphere (in press).Google Scholar
  26. Unger, M., and Nordberg, G.F., 1979, Distribution of PCB and DDT among human tissues, Arch. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol., 30 (Suppl.):537,Google Scholar
  27. Vainio, H., Sorsa, M., Rantanen, J., Hemminski, K., and Aitio, A., 1981, Biological monitoring in the identification of the cancer risk of individuals exposed to chemical carcinogens, Scan. J. Work Environ. Health, 7:241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wright, Alan S., 1983, Molecular Dosimetry Techniques in Human Risk Assessment: An Industrial Perspective, in: Developments in the Science and Practice of Toxicology. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 311–318.Google Scholar
  29. Ziegler, E.E., Edwards, B.B., Jensen, R.L., Mahaffey, K.R., and Fomon, S.J., 1978, Absorption and retention of lead by infants, Pediat. Res., 12:29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renate D. Kimbrough
    • 1
  • Philippe A. Grandjean
    • 1
  1. 1.Centers for Disease Control, Public Health ServiceU. S. Department of Health and Human ServicesAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations