Pregnancy Outcome in Human Couples with Idiopathic Recurrent Abortions: The Role(s) of Female Serum, Mixed Lymphocyte Culture Blocking Factors, Potentiating Factors, and Local Uterine Immunity Before and After Paternal Leukocyte Immunization

  • Alan E. Beer
  • Zhu Xiaoyu
  • A. E. Semprini
  • James F. Quebbeman
Part of the Reproductive Biology book series (RBIO)


Two hundred-fifty couples with 4.6 ± 2.2 recurrent spontaneous abortions were fully worked up to ensure the absence of medical, genetic, infectious, structural, or a combination of these etiologies known to be associated with recurrent abortion. In addition, all were evaluated immunogenetically. In 67 couples reported here, the female was immunized with paternal leukocytes on two occasions and post-immunization immune response parameters were evaluated. Pregnancy outcome post-immunization can be predicted by analyzing the normal female serum and heat inactivated female serum mixed lymphocyte culture (MLR) blocking factors and potentiating factors with specificity for the male spouse. Women who abort an additional time post-immunization develop leukocytotoxic antibodies with paternal specificity and do not develop MLR blocking factors with specificity for B lymphocytes. Women who deliver a live born child post-immunization develop leukocytotoxic antibodies with less frequency and all develop maternal/anti-paternal specific MLR blocking factors that are not heat inactivatable and are nearly 100% effective in blocking female stimulator/male responder mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity. A subset of women immunized with paternal leukocytes established pregnancies and delivered severely growth retarded infants. In these patients, lymphocytes in the decidua mantling the conceptus were isolated and were found to be cytotoxic and hyperresponsive in MLR to paternal as well as to third party alloantigens.


Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion Mixed Lymphocyte Culture Recurrent Abortion Repeat Abortion Fetoplacental Unit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan E. Beer
    • 1
  • Zhu Xiaoyu
    • 2
  • A. E. Semprini
    • 3
  • James F. Quebbeman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology L5007-Women’s HospitalUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Maternal and Child Health HospitalHubei ProvinceChina
  3. 3.University of MilanoItaly

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