Cold Protected Hearts Extract Oxygen from Fluosol-DA During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

  • David M. Gartman
  • Paul F. McDonagh
  • Alexander S. Geha
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 180)


Cold cardioplegic solutions are used widely to help preserve the myocardium during the mandatory period of cardiac arrest required to perform most cardiac operations (Berger RL et al., 1981; Engelman RM et al., 1980; Conti VR et al., 1978). Providing the myocardium with oxygen during the elective ischemic period could prove beneficial. Adequate methods of providing oxygen have not readily been found. Cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia (CP) and cold oxygenated blood CP have been used to deliver oxygen to the arrested heart. Engelman et al., (1980), reported higher levels of creatine phosphate in an isolated pig heart preparation after the use of oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia solutions or oxygenated blood cardioplegia solutions as compared to an unoxygenated crystalloid solution. Bodenhamer et al., (1983), reported higher postperfusion levels of adenosine triphosphate, less myocardial water accumulation, as well as better functional preservation in dog hearts which received oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia versus aerated crystalloid cardioplegia. The amount of oxygen that can be delivered to the myocardium by these methods is necessarily limited.


Cardioplegia Solution Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve Surgical Arrest Crystalloid Cardioplegia Ischemic Arrest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Berger RL, Davis KB, Kaiser GC, Foster ED, Hammond GL, Tong TG, Kennedy JW, Sheffield T, Ringqvist I, Weins RD, Chaitman BR, and Mock M, 1981, Preservation of the Myocardium During Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Circulation, 64:(Suppl II), 61–66.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bleese N, Döring V, Kaiman P, Pokar H, Polonius MJ, Steiner D, and Rodewald G, 1978, Intraoperative Myocardial Protection by Cardioplegia in Hypothermia, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 75:405–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bodenhamer RM, DeBoer LW, Geffin GA, O’Keefe DD, Fallon JT, Aretz TH, Haas GS, and Daggett WM, 1983, Enhanced Myocardial Protection During Ischemic Arrest, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 85:769–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bretschneider HJ, Hubner G, Knoll D, Lohr B, Nordbeck H, and Spieckermann PG, 1975, Myocardial Resistance and Tolerance to Ischemia: Physiological and Biochemical Basis, J Cardiovasc Surg, 16:241–260.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buckberg GD, Brazier JR, Nelson RL, Goldstein SM, McConnell DH, and Cooper N, 1977, Studies of the Effects of Hypothermia on Regional Myocardial Blood Flow and Metabolism During Cardiopulmonary Bypass, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 73:87–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Conti VR, Bertranou EG, Blackstone EH, Kirklin JW, and Digerness SB, 1978, Cold Cardioplegia Versus Hypothermia for Myocardial Protection, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 76:577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Digerness SB, Vanini V, and Wideman FE, 1981, In Vitro Comparison of Oxygen Availability From Asanguinous and Sanguinous Cardioplegia Media, Circulation, 64:(Suppl II), 80–83.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dill DB and Forbes WH, 1941, Respiratory and Metabolic Effects of Hypothermia, Am J Phys, 132:685–696.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Engelman RM, Rousou JH, and Anvil J, 1980, The Safety of Prolonged Ischemic Arrest Using Hypothermic Cardioplegia, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 79:705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Engelman RM, Rousou JH, Dobbs W, Pels MA, and Longon F, 1980, The Superiority of Blood Cardioplegia in Myocardial Preservation, Circulation, 62(Suppl I), 62–66.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Follette DM, Mulder DG, Maloney JV, and Buckberg GD, 1978, Advantages of Blood Cardioplegia Over Continuous Coronary Perfusion or Intermittent Ischemia, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 76: 604–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Geyer RP, Monroe RG, and Taylor K, 1968, Survival of Rats Totally Perfused with a Fluorocarbon-Detergent Preparation, in: “Organ Perfusion and Preservation,” J.C. Norman, ed., Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mitsuno T, Ohyanagi H, and Naito R, 1982, Clinical Studies of A Perfluorochemical Whole Blood Substitute (Fluosol-DA), Ann Surg, 195:60–69.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Naito R and Yokoyama K, 1978, AA In: Perfluorochemical Blood Substitutes, Technical Information Series #5, The Green Cross Corp.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Severinghaus JW, 1958, Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve Correction for Temperature and pH Variation in Human Blood, J Appl Phys, 12:485–486.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Gartman
    • 1
  • Paul F. McDonagh
    • 1
  • Alexander S. Geha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations