On the Understanding of Retinal Topography

A “Two-Axis” Model of Mammalian Retina
  • Jonathan Stone
Part of the Perspectives in Vision Research book series (PIVR)


A remarkable feature of mammalian retina is the constancy of its organization across its thickness. In the retinas of all mammals, three layers of nerve cells are recognized, separated by plexiform (synaptic) layers. The receptor cells lie on the outer surface of the retina, with the tips of their outer segments enclosed by cells of the pigment epithelium; bipolar, amacrine, interplexiform, and horizontal cells form the middle layer, and ganglion cells and their axons form the innermost layers of the retina.


Ganglion Cell Ganglion Cell Layer Soma Size Mammalian Retina Rabbit Retina 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Stone
    • 1
  1. 1.School of AnatomyUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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