Energy Needs of the Less Developed Countries (LDCs)

  • Adnan Shihab-Eldin
  • Sulayman S. Al-Qudsi
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (EMISS, volume 9)


The world has always used large quantities of energy in its production processes and its consumption of goods and services. In the early years, a plentiful supply of wood provided cheap fuel for home and commerce, and coal was sufficiently plentiful to be easily substituted for wood as wood supplies close to points of demand depleted. Kerosene quickly took over from whale oil for lighting, with petroleum becoming increasingly important as the automobile came upon the scene. If anyone has ever doubted that energy is the foundation of modern industrial economies, the “energy crisis” of the mid-1970s dramatically proved the point. The oil price increase demonstrated the vulnerability of the world economies to interruptions in the smooth flow of energy supply. Japan, for example, depends on imports for 99% of its oil needs, while Western Europe imports 96% and the USA about 45% (Todaro, 1977). The oil-importing developing countries, on the other hand, obtain about two-thirds of their energy from oil and, consequently, were hard hit too in the mid-1970s (ICIDI, 1979).


Energy Demand Capita Basis Primary Energy Consumption World Energy Crude Petroleum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adelman, I. C. Morris, and Robinson, S., 1976, Policies for equitable growth, World Development, 4 (3): 561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baer, W., 1974, The World Bank Group and the process of socio-economic development in the Third World, World Development, 2 (6): 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chernery, H., et al., 1974, “Redistribution with Growth”, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  4. Chessire J. and Paritt, K., 1978, The Great Debate, “Some Energy Futures” in World Futures., C. Freeman and M. Jahoda (eds.) Universe Books, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Dacy, D. C., et al., 1978, Employment effects of energy conservation in the USA, Energy Economics 1 (4): 194–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Darmstadter, etal., “Energy in the World Economy: A Statistical Review of Trends in Output, Trade and Consumption Since 1925”, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  7. DuMoulin, H. and Eyre, J., 1979, Energy scenarios. A learning process, Energy Economics, l(2): 76 - 86.Google Scholar
  8. Fesharaki, F., 1980, Global petroleum supplies in the 1980s: prospects and problems, OPEC Review, 4 (2): 27–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Friedman, E., 1976, Financing Energy in Developing Countries, Energy Policy, 37–49.Google Scholar
  10. Griffin, J. M., and Steele, H. B., 1980, “Energy Economics and Policy”, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Hafele, W., 1980, “Energy in a Finite World: A Global Energy Systems Analysis”, IIASA, Laxenburg.Google Scholar
  12. Hafele, W. and Sassin, W., 1977, The Global Energy Systems, in “Annual Review of Energy”.Google Scholar
  13. Heilbroner, R., 1974, “An Inquiry into the Human Prospect”, Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Howe, C. W., 1979. “Natural Resources Economics”, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Independent Commission on International Development Issues (ICIDI), 1979, “North-South: A Program for Survival”, ICIDI,Google Scholar
  16. Kahn, H., 1979, “World Economic Development 1979 and Beyond”, Marrow Quill, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Kelley, A. and Williamson, G., 1974, “Lessons From Japanese Development”, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  18. Kouzminov, V. A., 1979, Comment on the world’s energy situation, Impact of Science on Society, 29 (4): 289–302.Google Scholar
  19. Lambertini, A., 1976, “Energy and Petroleum in Non-OPEC Developing Countries”, World Bank Staff Working Paper.Google Scholar
  20. Leontief, W., et al., 1977, “The Future of the World Economy”, A United Nations Study, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Lewis, W. A., 1980, “The Slowing Down of the Engine of Growth”, American Economic Review, 70(4):555–564.Google Scholar
  22. Makhijani, A., 1975, “Energy and Agriculture in the Third World”, Ballinger Publishing Co., Cambridge.Google Scholar
  23. Manne, A., etal., 1979, Energy policy modeling: a survey, Operations Research, 27(1):Jan/Feb.Google Scholar
  24. Morawetz, D., 1977, “Twenty-five years of Economic Development, 1950–1975”, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  25. The National Research Council, 1979, “Energy in Transition 1985–2010”, W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco.Google Scholar
  26. Pachauri, R. K., (In press), Energy prospects and problems in oil importing LDCs, OAPEC Journal.Google Scholar
  27. Reynolds, L., 1977, “Image and Reality in Economic Development”, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  28. Schurr, S. H., 1978, Energy, economic growth and human welfare, Energy Use Management, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 87–92.Google Scholar
  29. Stobaugh, R. and Yergin, D., 1979, “Energy Future: Report on Energy Project at the Harvard Business School”, Randam House, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Strout, A. M., Prospects for Nuclear Power in the Developing Countries, in “Advances in the Economics of Energy and Resources”, Robert Pindyck (ed.), JAI Press, Greenwich.Google Scholar
  31. Studsvik Report, Olof Murelius, Energy in Developing Countries EP-79/118, Nykoeping, Sweden.Google Scholar
  32. Tyner, E., 1978, “Energy Resources and Economic Development in India”, Martinus-Nijhoff Social Sciences Division, Leiden.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ulph, A. M., 1980, World energy models — a survey and critique, Energy Economics, 2 (1): 46–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. UNCTAD, 1978, “Energy Supplies for Developing Countries: Issues in Transfer and Development of Technology”.Google Scholar
  35. WAES, “Energy Supply-Demand Integration for the Year 2000”, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  36. WAES, 1977, “Energy: Global Prospects, 1985–2000”, MCGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  37. World Energy Conference (WEC), 1978, “World Energy Resources”, IPC Science and Technology Press for the WEC, Guildford.Google Scholar
  38. World Energy Conference (WEC)m 1978, “Energy Resources: Avilability and Rational Use,” IPC Science & Technology Press, Istanbul.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adnan Shihab-Eldin
    • 1
  • Sulayman S. Al-Qudsi
    • 1
  1. 1.The Kuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchSafatKuwait

Personalised recommendations