Immunity in the Developing Amphibian

  • Susan H. Pross
  • David T. RowlandsJr.
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 64)


Studies of immunologic development require animal models in which the effects of antigenic stimulation can be measured accurately with regard to various states of lymphoid development (1). Anuran amphibia represent one such group of animals. From an evolutionary perspective, adult amphibia are the first animals to possess a bone marrow which is similar to that of mammals, tissues resembling mammalian lymph nodes, and an “IgG”-like immunoglobulin (2–4). Similarly, the two life forms of amphibian tadpoles and frogs invite ontogenetic studies of the immune system as it relates to development of lymphoid tissues.


Xenopus Laevis Horseshoe Crab Antibody Activity Mammalian Lymph Node Adult Frog 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sherwin, W.K., and Rowlands, D.T. Jr. J. Immunol., 113:1353 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baculi, B.B., Cooper, E.L. and Brown, B.A. J. Morph., 131: 315 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Diener, E., and Nossal, G.J.V. Immunol. 10:535 (1966).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marchalonis, J.J., and Cone, R.E. Aust. J. Exp. Med. 51:461 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cooper, E.L. J. Morph. 122:381 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    DuPasquier, L., Weiss, L., and Loor, F. Eur. J. Immunol. 2:366 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cooper, E.L. Anat. Rec. 162:453 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cooper, E.L., and Hildemann, W.H. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 126:647 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Raff, M.C. Transplant. Rev. 6:52 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marchalonis, J.J. and Edelman, G.M. J. Exp. Med. 124:901 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marchalonis, J.J. and Cone, R.E. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci. 51:461 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moticka, E.J., Brown, B.A., and Cooper, E.L. J. Immunol. 110:855 (1974).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Geczy, C.L., Green, P.C., and Steiner, L.A. J. Immunol. 111: 1261 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marchalonis, J.J. Dev. Biol. 25:479 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rosenquist, G.L., and Hoffman, R.Z. J. Immunol., 108:1499 (1972).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Witschi, E. Development of Vertebrates (Saunders, Phil., 1956).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blakeslee, D., Antczak, D.F., and Rowlands, D.T. Jr. Immunochem. 10:61 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Adams, M.H. Bacteriophage (Interscience, New York 1959).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Green, P.C., Epstein, S.M., Epstein, K.A., and Steiner, L.A. Fed. Proc. 33:735 (1974).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Montgomery, P.C., and Williamson, A.R. Nature 228:1307 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Silverstein, A.M. Ontogeny of Acquired Immunity (Elsvier, Excerpta, Medica, North Hall and Associated Scientific Publishers, 1972).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith, R.T. Developmental Aspects of Antibody Formation and Structure (Academia Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science 1 Prague, 1970).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cooper, A.J. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Leukocyte Culture Conference (Appleton-Centry-Crofts, New York, 1971).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goldshein, S.J., and Cohen, N. J. Immunol. 108:1025 (1972).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    DuPasquier, L. and Weiss, L. Eur. J. Immunol. 3:773 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Silverstein, A.M., Uhr, J.W., and Kramer, K.H. J. Exp. Med. 124:799 (1966).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rowlands, D.T. Jr., Blakeslee, D., and Angala, E. J. Immunol. 112:2148 (1974).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    DuPasquier, L. Curr. Topics in Micro and Immuno. 61:37 (1973).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haimovich, J. and DuPasquier, L. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 70:1898 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Turpen, J.B., Volpe, E.P., and Cohen, N. Science 182:931 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Turner, R.J. and Manning, M.J. Eur. J. Immunol. 4:343 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    This work was supported in part by USPHS Grants HL-15061 and CA-15822.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan H. Pross
    • 1
  • David T. RowlandsJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Biology and PathologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhila.USA

Personalised recommendations