Thymic Function in Amphibians

  • Margaret J. Manning
  • Madeleine H. Collie
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 64)


The advantages of using anamniote vertebrates with free-living embryonic stages in studies on the ontogeny of the immune system are well known. Very young larval stages can readily withstand surgical intervention such as that of thymectomy and, unlike mammals, they are exempt from any possible maternal influence. Although experiments on the effect of early thymectomy have recently been reported in fish (1), most results of larval thymus extirpation come from amphibians. This class has many advantages: amphibians adapt well to conditions of laboratory aquaria and vivaria, in many species the early developmental stages are readily obtained and easy to manipulate, good cell markers can be produced by the creation of polyploid forms, inbred strains are available for some species (2) and convenient culture methods have been developed for the study of immune responses in vitro. Two groups which at present are being intensively studied, newts and anuran amphibians, have the additional advantage that the thymus originates in association with a single pair of pharyngeal pouches; in the newts the 5th pouch and in anuran amphibians, pouch 2. This contrasts with apodans, other urodeles and the remaining poikilotherm groups and it obviously facilitates experimental destruction of the thymic buds.


Lymphoid Organ Larval Life Pharyngeal Pouch Rana Pipiens Serum Antibody Titre 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sailendri, K., Studies on the Development of Lymphoid Organs and Immune Responses in the Teleost, Tilapia mossambica(Peters). 128 pp. (Ph.D. Thesis, Madurai University, 1973).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Charlemagne, J. and Tournefier, A., J. Immunogenetics, 1: 108 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cooper, E. L., Brown, B. A. and Wright, R. K., Amer. Zool. 15:85 (1975).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Turpen, J. B., Volpe, E. P. and Cohen, N., Amer. Zool. 15:51 (1975).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sailendri, K. and Muthukkaruppan, Vr., J. Exp. Zool. 191:371 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moticka, E. J., Brown, B. A. and Cooper, E. L., J. Immun. 110: 855 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Emmrich, F., Richter, R. F. and Ambrosius, H., Eur. J. Immun. 5:76 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Du Pasquier, L., Weiss, N. and Loor, F., Eur. J. Immun. 2:366 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Collie, M. H., Turner, R. J. and Manning, M. J., Eur. J. Immun. (in press).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goldstine, S. N. and Collins, N. H., Fed. Proc. 34:966 (1975).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ruben, L. N., van der Hoven, A. and Dutton, R. W., Cell. Immun. 6:300 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohen, N., Amer. Zool. 15:119 (1975).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cooper, E. L., in Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology, 2: 13 (Plenum Press, New York and London, 1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Du Pasquier, L., Current Topics Microbiol. Immun. 61:137 (1973).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Horton, J. D. and Horton, T. L., Amer. Zool. 15:73 (1975).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tournefier, A., J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 29:383 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Charlemagne, J., Eur. J. Immun. 4:390 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fache, B. and Charlemagne, J., Eur. J. Immun. 5: 155 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tournefier, A., C. R. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. D, Paris, 275: 2443 (1972).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Horton, J. D., Horton, T. L. and Rimmer, J., in Cooper, E. L. and Du Pasquier, L., Progress in Immunology, 2, vol. 2:297 (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1974).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Turner, R. J. and Manning, M. J., Eur. J. Immun. 4:343 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Horton, J. D. and Manning, M. J., Immunology 26:797 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baculi, B. S. and Cooper, E. L., J. Exp. Zool. 183:185 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wortis, H. H., Clin. Exp. Immun. 8:305 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pantelouris, E. M., Immunology 20:247 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Crewther, P. and Warner, N. L., Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 50:625 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Howard, J. G., Scott, M. T. and Christie, G. H., in Ciba Foundation Symp., 18 (new series): 101 (Associated Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, 1973).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Turner, R. J., Tâm, N. D. and Manning, M. J., J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 16:232 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nieuwkoop, P. D. and Faber, J., Normal Table of Xenopus laevis(Daudin), 2nd ed., 252 pp. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1967).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Horton, J. D. and Manning, M. J., Transplantation 14:141 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Manning, M. J., J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 26:219 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Horton, J. D. and Manning, M. J., J. Morph. 143:385 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Morris, B., in Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology 2:39 (Plenum Press, New York and London, 1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bryant, B. J., Progress in Immunology, 2, vol. 3:5 (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1974).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret J. Manning
    • 1
  • Madeleine H. Collie
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of HullHullEngland

Personalised recommendations