Regional Developmental and Fractional Studies on Myelin and Other Carbonic Anhydrases in Rat CNS

  • Victor Sapirstein
  • Michael Trachtenberg
  • Marjorie B. Lees
  • Omanand Koul
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 100)


Myelin carbonic anhydrase (CA) was studied with respect to its development in various brain regions and light and heavy myelin (LM and HM). The data indicate that the specific activity of myelin CA has a clear neuraxial distribution, increasing rostrally. The absolute activities and relative distribution are invariant with age; this suggests the CA activity in myelin is independent of stage and degree of myelination. The studies on HM and LM illustrate that HM, like total myelin, has a constant CA activity during development. In contrast, LM although equal to HM at 14 days, progressively decays to an adult level which is one-fourth that of HM. The distribution of CA in myelin was further investigated by comparing the activity in myelin with that present in the SN4 fraction. The activity in this latter fraction, which is derived from heavy myelin, was found to be 2.2 times higher than that in the myelin fraction. Thus, in the adult there exists an almost ten-fold range of activities among the various myelin fractions, SN4 > HM > LM. This may indicate a segregation of activity towards the outer lamellae. This segregation may have physiological importance in that it is this region of the sheath which should be integrally involved in control of myelin edema. Evidence indicates that there is an interaction of chloride with the enzyme, and maybe the primary ion moved by CA in order to initiate an osmotic flux out of the sheath. The interaction of chloride with the enzyme is dependent on the CA complex with the membrane in that solubilization and partial (60-fold) purification results in a preparation which is refractory to anions.


Brain Stem Carbonic Anhydrase Soluble Fraction Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Human Carbonic Anhydrase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Agrawal, H.C., Trotter, T.H., Mitchell, R.F. and Burton, R.M., Metabolic studies on myelin: evidence for a precursor role of a myelin subfraction, Biochem. J. 140 (1974) 99–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ashby, W. and Schuster, E.M., Carbonic anhydrase in the brain of the new born in relation to functional maturity, J. Biol. Chem. 184 (1950) 109–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benjamins, J., Miller, K. and McKhann, G.M., Myelin subfractions in developing rat brain: Characterization and sulphatide metabolism, J. Neurochemistry 20 (1973) 1589–1603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bergmeyer, H.U., Bernt, E. and Ness, B., Lactic dehydrogenase, in Methods of Enzymatic Analysis ( H.U. Bergmeyer, ed.) Academic Press, New York (1965) pp. 736–741.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bhattacharjee, J., Developmental changes of carbonic anhydrase in the retina of the mouse: A histochemical study, Histochem. J. 8 (1976) 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bourke, R.S., Kimelberg, H.K., West, C.R. and Bremer, A.M., The effect of HC0 on the swelling and ion uptake of monkey cerebral cortex udder conditions of raised extracellular potassium, J. Neurochem. 25 (1975) 323–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cammer, W., Rose, A.L. and Norton, W.T., Biological and pathological studies of myelin in hexachlorophene intoxication, Brain Res. 98 (1975) 547–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cammer, W., Fredman, T., Rose, A.L. and Norton, W.T., Brain carbonic anhydrase: Activity in isolated myelin and the effect of hexachlorophene, J. Neurochem. 27 (1976) 165–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carter, M.J., Carbonic anhydrase: Isozymes, properties, distribution and functional significance, Biol. Rev. 47 (1972) 465–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davison, A.N., Myelinogenesis: Chemical aspects, Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 9, No. 4 (1971) 465–470.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eto, Y., Suzuki, K. and Suzuki, K., Lipid composition of rat brain myelin in triethyl tin-induced edema, J. Lipid. Res. 72 (1971) 570–579.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Giacobini, E., A cytochemical study of the localization of carbonic anhydrase in the nervous system, J. Neurochem. 9 (1962) 169–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gill, T.H., Young, O.M. and Tower, D.B., The uptake of 36Cl into astrocytes in tissue culture by a potassium-dependent saturable process, J. Neurochem. 23 (1974) 1011–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gray, W.D. and Rauh, C.E., Mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of acetazoleamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 163 (1968) 431–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hirano, A., Edema damage, Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 9, No. 4 (1971) 493–496.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kannan, K.K., Petef, M., Fridborg, K., Cid-Dresdner, A. and Lovgren, S., Structure and function of carbonic anhydrases: Imidazole binding to human carbonic anhydrase B and the mechanism of action of carbonic anhydrases, FEES. Lett. 73 (1977) 115–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kimbrough, R.D. and Gaines, T.B., Hexachlorophene effects on the rat brain, Archs. Envir. Hlth. 23 (1971) 114–118.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Korhonen, L.K., N.ütänen, E. and Hyyppä, M., A histochemical study of carbonic anhydrase in some parts of the mouse brain, Acta Histochem. 18 (1964) 336–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Korhonen, L.K. and Hyyppä, M., Histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase activity in the spinal and coeliac ganglia of the rat, Acta Histochem. 26 (1967) 75–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Koul, O. and Kanungo, M.S., Alterations in carbonic anhydrase of the brain of rats as a function of age, Exp. Geront. 10 (1975) 273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lees, M.B. and Paxman, S., Modification of the Lowry procedure for the analysis of proteolipid protein, Anal. Biochem. 47 (1972) 184–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lowry, O.J., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J., Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent, J. Biol. Chem. 193 (1951) 265–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maren, T.H., A simplified micromethod for the determination of carbonic anhydrase and its inhibitions, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 130 (1960) 26–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maren, T.H., Carbonic anhydrase: Chemistry, physiology, and inhibition, Physiolog. Rev. 47 (1967) 595–781.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    McKinley, D.N. and Whitney, P.L., Particulate carbonic anhydrase in homogenates of human kidney, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 445 (1976) 780–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Millichap, J.G., Development of seizure patterns in newborn animals: Significance of brain carbonic anhydrase, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 97 (1958) 606–611.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Millichap, J.G., Woodbury, D.M. and Goodman, L.S., The anti-convulsant action of carbon dioxide: interaction with reserpine and inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 115 (1955) 251–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Musser, G.L. and Rosen, S., Localization of carbonic anhydrase activity in the vertebrate retina, Exp. Eye Res. 15 (1973) 105–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nair, V. and Bau, D., Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the ontogenesis of acetylcholin-esterase and carbonic anhydrase in rat central nervous system, Brain Res. 16 (1969) 383–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nair, V. and Bau, D., Studies on the functional significance of carbonic anhydrase in C.N.S., Brain Res. 31 (1971) 185–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Norton, W.T. and Poduslo, S., Myelination in rat brain:method of myelin isolation, J. Neurochem. 21 (1973) 749–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Norton, W.T. and Poduslo, S., Myelination in rat brain: changes in myelin composition during brain maturation, J. Neurochem. 21 (1973) 749–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ochs, S., Nature of spreading depression in neural networks, Intl. Rev. Neurobiol. 4 (1962) 1–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rose, S.P.R. and Sinha, A.K., Bulk separation of neurons and glia: a comparison of techniques, Brain Res. 33 (1971) 205–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sapirstein, V. and Lees, M.B., Isolation and characterization of myelin carbonic anhydrase, Tran. Intl. Soc. Neurochem. 8 (1977) 571.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Smith, M.E., Studies on the mechanism of demyelination: triethyl tin-induced demyelination, J. Neurochem. 21 (1973) 357–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tower, D.B. and Young, O.M., The activities of butyrylcholinesterase and carbonic anhydrase, the rate of anaerobic glycolysis, and the question of a constant density of glial cells in cerebral cortices of various mammalian species from mouse to whale, J. Neurochem. 20 (1973) 269–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Waehneldt, T.V., Isolation of rat brain myelin, monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of dodecyl sulfate-extracted proteins, Brain Res. 40 (1975) 419–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Waehneldt, T.V., Ontogenetic study of a myelin derived fraction with 2’,3’-cyclic-nucleotide 3’-phosphohydrolase activity higher than that of myelin, J. Biochem. 151 (1975) 435–437.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yandrasitz, J.R., Ernst, S.A. and Salganicoff, L., The sub-cellular distribution of carbonic anhydrase in homogenates of perfused rat brain, J. Neurochem. 27 (1976) 707–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor Sapirstein
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael Trachtenberg
    • 3
  • Marjorie B. Lees
    • 1
    • 2
  • Omanand Koul
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryThe Eunice Kennedy Shriver CenterWalthamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological ChemistryHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyBoston Veteran’s Administration HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations