Fibre Optics pp 218-234 | Cite as

Fibre Optics in Medicine

  • W. B. Allan
Part of the Optical Physics and Engineering book series (OPEG)


Historically, the medical field was the first to exploit the advantages offered by the use of optical fibres. In fact, the use of internal reflection as a means of guiding light was employed in the late 1930’s to provide illumination for simple medical inspection instruments. In these instruments, the light from a filament bulb was guided to the inspection area by internal reflection along a polished plastic probe. The dielectric interface was formed between the plastic and air, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The plastic used was methyl methacrylate and the probe could be shaped to ease entry, or to perform some other function, e.g. retraction; some typical shapes are illustrated in Fig. 2. This form of illumination is still used in a variety of medical instruments but, since the reflecting interface is the probe surface, the efficiency is adversely affected by scratches and liquid films on this surface. Because of this, the probe is kept relatively short and with a large cross-section, so that the number of reflections is small. This restricts the range of instruments to those which do not require a large penetration and enter a relatively large cavity, and are normally used for oral or anal inspection. The main impetus for the use of fibre optics in medical instruments came from considerations of patient safety and comfort.


Fibre Optic Light Guide Coherent Bundle Input Face Medical Instrumentation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    B. I., Hirschowitz, L. E. Curtiss, C. W. Peters and H. M. Pollard, Gastro enterology 35, 50(1958).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. F. Capellaro, N. S. Kapany and C. Long, Nature 191, 927 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. P. Hovnanian, Med. Electronics Conf. Proc, 1st, London (1960) p. 22.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    N. S. Kapany and N. Silbertrust, Nature 204, 138 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Chapter Eleven — Fibre Optics in Medicine

  1. 127.
    Behrend, J., Proctoscopic Photography, J. Soc. Motion Picture and Television Engrs., 75, 655 (1966).Google Scholar
  2. 128.
    Benedict, E. B., Esophagoscopy, Gastrocopy and Peritoneoscopy, Gastroenterology, 42, 171–4(1962).Google Scholar
  3. 129.
    Brewington, H. H. and K. Stecher, An Improved Technique for Obtaining Cortical Photoelectric Plethysmograms, J. Appl. Physiol., 22, 187–8 (1967).Google Scholar
  4. 130.
    Burnett, W., An Evaluation of Gastroduodenal Fiberscopes, J. Brit. Soc. Gastroenterology, 3, 361–5 (1962).Google Scholar
  5. 131.
    Capellaro, D. F., N. S. Kapany and C. Long, A Hypodermic Probe Using Fibre Optics, Nature 191, 927–8 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 132.
    DeLaCroix, R. F., A Fiber Optic Pressure Transducer for Physiological Pressure Measurement, Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, 1966.Google Scholar
  7. 133.
    Enson, Y., W. A. Briscoe, M. L. Polanyi and A. Cournand, In Vivo Studies with an Intravascular and Intracardiac Reflection Oximeter, J. Appl. Physiol. 17, 552–8 (1962).Google Scholar
  8. 134.
    Enson, Y., A. G. Jameson, and A. Cournand, Intracardiac Oximetry in Congen-tial Heart Disease, Circulation 29, 499–507 (1964).Google Scholar
  9. 135.
    Frommer, P. L., J. Ross, D. T. Mason, J. H. Gault, and E. Braunwald, Clinical Applications of an Improved Rapidly Responding Fiber Optic Catheter, Am. J. Cardiol. 15, 672–9 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 136.
    Fulton, W. F., The Fiberscope in Gastroscopy, Am. J. Gastroenterology, 38, 290–8 (1962).Google Scholar
  11. 137.
    Gamble, W. J., P. G. Hugenholtz, M. L. Polanyi, R. G. Monroe, and A.S. Nadas, The Use of Fiber Optics in Clinical Cardiac Catheterization I. Intracardiac Oximetry, Circulation 31, 328–43 (1965).Google Scholar
  12. 138.
    Goldman, J. A., S. Bereskin, and C. Shackney, Fiber Optics in Medicine, New Eng. J. Med. 273, 1425–6 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 139.
    Goldman, J. A., S. Bereskin, and C. Shackney, Fiber Optics in Medicine New Eng. J. Med. 273, 1477–80(1965).Google Scholar
  14. 140.
    Harrison, D. C., N. S. Kapany, H. A. Miller, N. Sibertrust, W. L. Henry, and R. P. Drake, Fiber Optics for Continuous In Vivo Monitoring of Oxygen Saturation, Am. Heart J. 71,766–74(1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 141.
    Hett, J. H., and L. E. Curtiss, Fiber Optics Duodenoscope and Ureterscope, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 581–2(1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 142.
    Hirschowitz, B. I., G. C. Luketic, J. A. Balint, and W. F. Fulton, Early Fiberscope Endoscopy for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Am. J. Digest. Diseases 8, 816–25 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 143.
    Hirschowitz, B. I., Endoscopic Examination of the Stomach and Duodenal Cap with the Fiberscope, Lancet 1, 1074–8 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 144.
    Hirschowitz, B. I., Endoscopic Photography Using Fiber Optics, J. Soc. Motion Picture and Television Engrs., 73, 625–6 (1964).Google Scholar
  19. 145.
    Hirschowitz, B. I., A Fibre Optic Flexible Esophagoscope, Lancet 2, 388(1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 146.
    Hirschowitz, B. I., Fibre Optics in Modern Medicine, Med. Biol. Illus. 15, 224–9 (1965).Google Scholar
  21. 147.
    Hirschowitz, B. I., Gastroduedenal Endoscopy with the Fiberscope, Bull. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 8, 15–22 (1962).Google Scholar
  22. 148.
    Hirschowitz, B. I., Gastroduodenal Endoscopy with a Fiberscope-An Analysis of 500 Examinations, Surg. Clin. North Am. 42, 1081–90 (1962).Google Scholar
  23. 149.
    Hirschowitz, B. I., Photography through the Fiber Gastroscope, Am. J. Digest, Diseases 8, 389–95(1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 150.
    Hovanian, H. P., P. B. Brand, T. A. Brennan, and E. Watkins, Current Applications of Fiber Optics to Fluoroscopy, Med. Electronics Biol. Engng. 1, 71–4 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 151.
    Hovanian, H. P., J. S. Longo, P. B. Brand, T. A. Brennan, and A. J. Bower, Electro-optic Monitor and Fluoroscope, J. Am. Dental Assoc. 64, 323–8 (1962).Google Scholar
  26. 152.
    Hovanian, H. P., Fibre Optic Dental Television Monitor and Fluoroscope, In: Med. Electronics Conf., Proc. 1st, London, 1960 p. 22–4.Google Scholar
  27. 153.
    Hovanian, H. P., H. F. McCarthy, and F. L. Rose, Fiber Optic Surgical Illuminator, Surgery, 52, 872–4(1962).Google Scholar
  28. 154.
    Hovanian, H. P., H. F. McCarthy, and F. L. Rose, Fiber Optic Techniques in Proctovaginoscopy, Am. J. Surgery 108, 101–4 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 155.
    Hugenholtz, P. G., W. J. Gamble, R. R. Munroe, and M. L. Polanyi, The Use of Fiber Optics in Cardiac Catheterization. II. In Vivo Dye-Dilution Curves, Circulation 31, 344–55 (1965).Google Scholar
  30. 156.
    Kapany, N. S., D. C. Harrison, N. Silbertrust, R. P. Drake, T. McLaughlin, and H. A. Miller, Fiber Optics Oximeter — Densitometer for Cardiovascular Studies, Appl. Optics 6, 565–70 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 157.
    Kapany, N. S., and N. Silbertrust, Fibre Optics Spectrophotometer for in Vivo Oximetry, Nature 204, 138–42 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 158.
    Lopresti, P. A., N. D. Scherl, L. Greene, and J.T. Farrar, Clinical Experience with a Glass-Fiber Gastroscope, Am. J. Digest. Diseases 7, 95–101 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 159.
    Lopresti, P. A., The Foroblique Fiberoptic Esophagoscope, Gastroint. Endosc. 31, 20–1 (Aug. 1966).Google Scholar
  34. 160.
    Lopresti, P. A., A. Hilmi, and P. Cifarelli, The Foroblique Fiber Optic Esophagoscope, Am. J. Gastroint. 47, 11–5 (1967).Google Scholar
  35. 161.
    MacDonald, H. Medical Applications of Fiber Optics, Biomed. Instrum. 1, 15–7 (Oct., 1964).Google Scholar
  36. 162.
    Marshall, V. F., Fiber Optics in Urology, J. Urol. 91, 110–4 (1964).Google Scholar
  37. 163.
    Marton, L., X-Ray Fiber Optics, Appl. Physics Letters 9, 194–5 (1966).Google Scholar
  38. 164.
    Polanyi, M. L., and R. M. Hehir, In Vivo Oximeter with Fast Dynamic Response, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 33, 1050–4 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 165.
    Reynolds, W. E., S. Bazell, A. Brushenko, and D. A. Pontarelli, Fiber Optic Multiple Fiber Sigmoidoscope, S.P.I.E. Journal, 6, 49–53 (1967–68).Google Scholar
  40. 166.
    Strub, I. H., Gastroscopy — A Re-evaluation, Am. J. Gastroenterology 40, 75–81 (1963).Google Scholar
  41. 167.
    Turell, R., Fiber Optic Coloscope and Sigmoidoscope, Am. J. Surg. 105, 133–6 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 168.
    Wallace, F. J., Fiber Optic Endoscopy, J. Urol. 90, 324–34 (1963).Google Scholar
  43. 169.
    Wallace, F. J., Fiber Optics, Hosp. Top. 43, 109–11 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 170.
    Wallace, F. J., New Diagnostic Aids through Fiber Optics, Am. J. Nursing 62, 111 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Company Ltd 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. B. Allan
    • 1
  1. 1.Ministry of DefenceSevenoaks, KentUK

Personalised recommendations