Photomovement may be described as any light-mediated behavioral act involving the spatial displacement of all or part of an organism. In order to understand better what these responses are and how they may be studied, we must first classify, or at least define, their basic characteristics. The scheme described here is the result of the better part of two centuries of work and is best summarized in the classic study of Fraenkel and Gunn.(1)


Light Stimulus Oriented Response Euglena Gracilis Canary Grass Marine Dinoflagellate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. S. Fraenkel and D. L. Gunn, The Orientation of Animals: Kineses, Taxes and Compass Reactions ,Dover Press, New York (1961).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. L. Gunn, J. S. Kennedy, and D. P. Pielou, Classification of taxes and kineses, Nature 140, 1064–1067 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. G. Ball, Plant tropisms, Vistas Botany 3, 228–254 (1963).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. J. Audus, Plant Growth Substances ,Interscience, New York (1959).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. K. De La Fuente and A. C. Leopold, Lateral movement of auxin in phototropism, Plant Physiol. 43, 1031–1036 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Bergman, P. B. Burke, E. Cerda-Olmedo, C. N. David, M. Delbrück, K. W. Foster, E. W. Goodell, M. Heisenberg, G. Meissner, M. Zalokar, D. S. Dennison, and W. Shropshire, Jr., Phycomyces, Bacteriol. Rev. 33, 99–157 (1969).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. J. Wolken, Invertebrate Photoreceptors: A Comparative Analysis ,Academic Press, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. S. Jennings, Behavior of the Lower Organisms ,Columbia University Press, New York (1906).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. O. Mast, Light and the Behavior of Organisms ,Wiley, New York (1911).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. G. Hand and D. Davenport, The experimental analysis of phototaxis and photokineses in flagellates, in: Photobiology of Microorganisms (P. Halldal, ed.), pp. 253–282, Wiley, London (1970).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Davenport, G. J. Culler, J. O. B. Greaves, R. B. Forward, and W. G. Hand, The investigation of the behavior of microorganisms by computerized television, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 17, 230–237 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. C. Berg, How to track bacteria, Rev. Sci. Instr. 42, 868–871 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. L. Jahn and E. C. Bovee, Locomotive and motile response in Euglena ,in: The Biology of Euglena (D. E. Beutow, ed.), Vol I, pp. 45–108, Academic Press, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    W. G. Hand, Phototactic orientation by the marine dinoflagellate Gyrodinium dorsum Kofoid. I. A mechanism model, J. Exp. Biol. 174, 33–38 (1970).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. G. Hand and J. Schmidt, Phototactic orientation by the marine dinoflagellate Gyrodinium dorsum Kofoid. II. Flagellar activity and overall response mechanism, J. Protozool. 22, 494–498 (1975).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. D. Dodge and R. M. Crawford, Observations of the fine structure of the eyespot and associated organelles in the dinoflagellate Glenodinium foliaceum, J. Cell Sci. 5, 479–493 (1969).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Tollin and M.I. Robinson, Phototaxis in Euglena. V. Photo suppression of phototactic activity by blue light, Photochem. Photobiol. 9, 411–418 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. B. Forward, Jr., Phototaxis in a dinoflagellate: Action spectra as evidence for a two-pigment system, Planta 111, 167–178 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Naitoh and R. Eckert, Ionic mechanisms controlling behavioral responses of Paramecium to mechanical stimulation, Science 164, 963–965 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. A. Sleigh, Cilia and Flagella ,Academic Press, New York (1974).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. E. Walter, The reactions of planarians to light, J. Exp. Zool. 5, 35–162 (1907).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Ullyott, The behaviour of Dendrocoelom lacteum. II. Responses in non-directional gradients, J. Exp. Biol. 13, 265–278 (1936).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. F. Rohlf and D. Davenport, Simulation of simple models of animal behavior with a digital computer, J. Theor. Biol. 23, 400–424 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. Surtees, Laboratory studies on dispersion behaviour of adult beetles in grain. VIII. Spontaneous activity in three species and a new approach to analysis of kinesis mechanisms, Anim. Behav. 12, 374–377 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    W. Haupt, Perception of light direction in oriented displacements of cell organelles, Acta Protozool. 11, 179–188 (1972).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. von Frisch, Bees: Their Chemical Senses, Vision and Language ,Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y. (1950).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    P. H. Wells and A. Wenner, Do honeybees have a language?, Nature 141, 171–175 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Renner, The contribution of the honey bee to the study of time-sense and astronomical orientation, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 25, 361–367 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. R. Griffin, Bird navigation, in: Recent Studies in Avian Biology (A Wolfson, ed.), pp. 154–197, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill. (1955).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    O. Siebeck, Researches on the behaviour of planktonic crustaceans in the littoral, Int. Ver. Limnol. 15, 746–751 (1964).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. Papi and L. Pardi, On lunar orientation of sandhoppers (Amphipoda talitridae), Biol. Bull. 124, 97–105 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. Pardi, Innate components in the solar orientation of littoral amphipods, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 25, 395–401 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. B. Forward, Jr., Light and diurnal vertical migration: Photobehavior and photophysiology of plankton, in: Photochemical and Photobiological Reviews (K. C. Smith, ed.), Vol. 1, pp. 157–209, Plenum Press, New York (1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyOccidental CollegeLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations