Recent Advances in Structural Analysis of Gangliosides: Primary and Secondary Structures
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The growing interest in the biological function of cell surface glycosphingolipids (GSLs) has stimulated the constant search for new methods for analyzing their primary and secondary structures. To determine the primary structure of the oligosaccharide moiety of a GSL, it is necessary to establish the composition and configuration of its sugar residues, and the sequence and linkage sites of the oligosaccharide chain. This information has traditionally been obtained by application of a combination of such procedures as compositional analysis by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, permethylation studies, Smith degradation, partial acid or enzyme hydrolysis, optical rotation measurements, etc. However, these techniques are relatively time-consuming, frequently require elaborate derivatization of the intact molecules, and access to many different instruments. Furthermore, these procedures do not afford secondary structural information (conformation) which is important in determining the biological activities of these compounds. Although x-ray crystallography has been used to provide accurate information about the conformation of a carbohydrate by measurement of bond lengths, bond angles, and interatomic distances, it is not certain whether the conformation that exists in a crystalline state is the one that is preferred in solution.
KeywordsNuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Anomeric Proton Nuclear Overhauser Effect
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