Gangliosides and Related Compounds as Biological Response Modifiers
- 86 Downloads
In the previous chapter1 we already discussed the curious fact that a considerably large number of glycosphingolipids (GSL) occur sporadically in nature and that this sporadic character seemingly makes it difficult to presuppose a special physiological function of these GSL except for practical utility in differentiating individual cells from each other. The significance of individual GSL species as cell surface markers or surface differentiation markers has already been recognized, as in the case of blood group GSL, Forssman antigen, globosides and asialo-GM1 in the subpopulation analysis of the haematopoietic system and in the analysis of developmental and differentiation processes of the haematopoietic system. Thus these markers, though they have no definite intrinsic physiological function, provide a useful tool to analyse these important biological processes at a cellular level. Moreover, we can specifically manipulate or control cell activities in vivo of tumor cells2 and subpopulations of lymphoid cells3, 4 by virtue of such cell marker recognition, for example, using specific antibodies or ligands to these surface markers. We will discuss this problem by taking asialo-GM1 (GA1 or Gg4Cer) ganglioside as representative.
KeywordsNerve Growth Factor Neurite Outgrowth Natural Killer Cell Activity Biological Response Modifier Mouse Hepatitis Virus
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Y. Nagai and M. Iwamori, Ganglioside distribution at different levels of organization and its biological implications; this volume.Google Scholar
- 2.D. L. Urdel and S. Hakomori, Tumor-associated ganglio-N-trio-sylceramide: target for antibody-dependent, avidin-mediated drug killing of tumor cells, J. Biol. Chem. 255:10509 (1980).Google Scholar
- 3.K. Sakakibara, T. Uchida, and Y. Nagai, Immunosuppressive effect of anti-asialo GM1 antiserum on hamsters heterotransplanted with Yoshida ascitic hepatoma cells, Proc. Japan. Cancer Assoc. The 29th Ann. Meeting, Tokyo, p. 101 (1980).Google Scholar
- 7.G. A. Schwarting, A. Summers, R. D. Stout, D. R. Parkinson, and S. D. Waksal, Association of asialo GM1 with natural killer activity in mice, Fed. Proc. 39:931 (1980).Google Scholar
- 16.F. Taguchi, Y. Sanai, K. Fujiwara, and Y. Nagai, Role of natural killer cells in the infection of mice with mouse hepatitis virus, JHM, as demonstrated by the use of anti-asialo GM1 serum, submitted to Infect. Immun.Google Scholar
- 18.T. Endo, D. D. Scott, S. Stewart, S. K. Kundu, and D. M. Marcus, Antibodies to glycosphingolipids in patients with multiple sclerosis and SLE, in: “Glycoconjugates”, Proc. 7th Internatl. Symp. on Glycoconjugates, Lund-Ronneby, Sweden, p. 244 (1983).Google Scholar
- 19.G. Inaba and J. Aoyama, Anti-glycolipid antibodies in neuro-behcet’s syndrome, in: “Behcet’s Disease”, Pathogenetic Mechanism and Clinical Features, Proc. Internatl. Conf. on Behcet’s Disease, G. Inaba, ed., p. 145, Univ. Tokyo Press, Tokyo (1982).Google Scholar
- 20.M. A. Bach, F. Phan-Dinh-Tuy, E. Tourier, L. Chatenoud, J.-F. Bach, C. Martin, and J. D. Degos, Deficit of suppressor T cells in active multiple sclerosis, Lancet 1221 (1980).Google Scholar
- 23.M. M. Rapport and A. Gorio (eds.), “Gangliosides in Neurological and Neuromuscular Function, Development, and Repair”, Raven Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
- 29.M. Sekiguchi, T. Oota, K. Sakakibara, N. Inui, and G. Fujii, Establishment and characterization of a human neuroblastoma cell line in tissue culture, Japan. J. Exp. Med. 49:67 (1979).Google Scholar
- 30.S. Miyake, Y. Shimo, T. Kitanuma, Y. Nojyo, T. Nakamura, S. Imashuku, and T. Abe, Characteristic of continuous and functional cell line NB-1, derived from a human neuroblastoma, Autonomic Nerv. System 10:115 (1973).Google Scholar