Diabetic Oxygen-Hemoglobin Equilibrium Curves Evaluated by Nonlinear Regression of the Hill Equation

  • J. F. O’Riordan
  • T. K. Goldstick
  • J. Ditzel
  • J. T. Ernest
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 169)


Theoxygen-hemoglobin equilibrium curves (OHECs) were measured on hole blood samples from 131 individuals (33 normal and 26 diabetic aduts and 30 normal and 42 diabetic juveniles) using a Radiometer Disociation Curve Analyzer (DCA-1). All measurements were mad in the morning following an overnight fast and without exogenous insulin. The saturation versus Po2 data were fitted to the Hill equation using a previously described nonlinear regression algorithm to yield the parameters describing the position (P50) and shape (n) of each OHEC. It was found that the Hill model could be used to describe OHECs of both normal and diabetic subjects. A small (approximately 10%) but significant decrease in P50 was found for the diabetic juveniles compared to normal juveniles. There appeared to be no change in P50 with diabetes in adults. However, in these diabetic subjects, the P50 had been increased by the somewhat elevated levels of 2,3-DPG. No difference in n was found between either group of diabetics and their corresponding group of normals but n was approximately 5% lower in juveniles than in adults. The ability of blood to release oxygen to tissue may be transiently impaired in diabetic juveniles because of the left shift of their OHECs.


Nonlinear Regression Hill Coefficient Normal Adult Hill Equation Oxygen Affinity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bunn, H.F., and Briehl, R.W., 1970, The interaction of 2,3-Diphos-phoglycerate with various human hemoglobins, J, Clin. Invest., 49: 1088–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ditzel, J., 1979, Changes in red cell release capacity in diabetes mellitus, Fed. Proc., 38: 2484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ditzel, J., 1980, Affinity hypoxia as a pathogenic factor of microangiopathy with particular reference to diabetic retinopathy. Acta Endocrinol., 94 Suppl. 238: 39–55.Google Scholar
  4. Ditzel, J., Kawahara, R., Mourits-Andersen, T., Ostergaard, G.Z., and Kjaergaard, J.J., 1981, Changes in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and hemoglobin-oxygen affinity following meals in diabetic children, Eur. J. Pediatr., 137: 171–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Duvelleroy, M.A., Buckles, R.G., Rosenkaimer, S., Tung, C, and Laver, M.B., 1970, An oxyhemoglobin dissociation analyzer, J. Appl. Physiol., 28: 227–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Garby, L., and Meldon, J., 1977, “The Respiration Functions of Blood”, Plenum Medical Book Co., New York, p. 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goldstick, T.K., Ernest, J.T., and Engerman, R.L., 1981, Impaired retinal vascular reactivity in diabetic dogs, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 20 ARVO Suppl.: 92.Google Scholar
  8. Hellegers, A.E., and Schruefer, J.J.P., 1961, Nomograms and empirical equations relating oxygen tensions, percentage saturation and pH in maternal and fetal blood, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 81: 377–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hill, A.V., 1910, The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of hemoglobin on its dissociation curves, J. Physiol. (Lond.), 40: (Proceedings) iv.Google Scholar
  10. Hilpert, P., Fleischmann, R.G., Kempe, D., and Bartels, H., 1963, The Bohr effect related to blood and erythrocyte pH, Am. J. Physiol., 205: 337–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. O’Riordan, J.F., Goldstick, T.K., Ditzel, J., and Ernest, J.T., 1982, Characterization of oxygen-hemoglobin equilibrium curves using nonlinear regression of the Hill equation: Parameter values for normal adults, in press.Google Scholar
  12. Perutz, M.F., 1970, Stereochemistry of cooperative effects on hemoglobin, Nature, 228: 726–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Robinson, B., 1981, NLREG-nonlinear Regression Subroutine Package, (Evanston IL: Vogelback Computer Center Document No. 328 (Rev. B), Northwestern University).Google Scholar
  14. Rossi-Bernardi, L., Roughton, F.J.W., Pace, M., and Coven, E., 1972, The effects of organic phosphates on the binding of CO2 to human hemoglobin and on CO2 transport in the circulating blood, in: “Oxygen Affinity of Hemoglobin and Red Cell Acid Base Status”, M. Rorth, P. Astrup, eds., Academic Press, New York, pp. 224–235.Google Scholar
  15. Roughton, F.J.W., 1964, Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, in: “Handbook of Physiology”, Sec. 3 “Respiration”, 3 vols., W. Fenn, H. Rahn, eds., American Physiological Society, Washington.Google Scholar
  16. Roughton, F.J.W., DeLand, E.C., Kernohan, J.C., and Severinghaus, J.W., 1972, Some recent studies of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve of human blood under physiological conditions and the fitting of the Adair equation to the standard curve, in: “Oxygen Affinity of Hemoglobin and Red Cell Acid Base Status”, M. Rorth, P. Astrup, eds., Academic Press, New York, pp. 73–81.Google Scholar
  17. Severinghaus, J.W., 1966, Blood gas calculator, J. Appl. Physiol., 21: 1108–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Winslow, R.M., Morrissey, J.M., Berger, R.L., Smith, P.D., and Gibson, C.C., 1978, Variability ot oxygen affinity of normal blood: An automated method of measurement, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir. Environ. Exercise Physiol., 45: 289–297.Google Scholar
  19. Woodson, R.D., 1979, Physiological significance of oxygen dissociation curve shifts, Crit. Care Med., 7: 368–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. F. O’Riordan
    • 1
  • T. K. Goldstick
    • 1
  • J. Ditzel
    • 2
  • J. T. Ernest
    • 3
  1. 1.Dept. of Chem. Eng.Northwestern Univ.EvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Dept. of MedicineAalborg Regional HospitalAalborgDenmark
  3. 3.Dept. of OphthalmologyUniv. of Illinois Eye and Ear InfirmaryChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations