EMC Design Effectiveness in Electronic Medical Prosthetic Devices
The increasing use of electronic prostheses in a society where the numbers and intensities of radiofrequency (RF) radiation sources are ever increasing requires special attention by the manufacturers of the medical devices and the practicing physicians who prescribe these devices. One such device, the artificial cardiac pacemaker, was tested extensively to assess the extent of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation interference (EMI) possible from a variety of RF sources. Pacemaker responses were measured on twenty-one different types (manufacturers and models) of devices, exposed in “free-field” and “simulated-implant” configurations. Relative interference thresholds were vastly different with the most sensitive pacemaker being adversely affected at electric (E) field levels as low as 10 volts per meter and the least sensitive pacemaker being relatively free of interference at levels as high as several hundred volts per meter. In many cases the real time E-field level around radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitters manifests itself as a pulsed or pseudo-pulsed (changing E-field level) signal which can adversely affect cardiac pacemakers and is potentially hazardous for other types of medical prosthetic devices. These empirical findings demonstrate the need for continuing awareness of potential RF interference situations and provide reasonable evidence that through such awareness many of the potential EMI problems can be effectively circumvented.
KeywordsPulse Repetition Rate Cardiac Pacemaker Prosthetic Device Epicardial Lead Pacemaker Rate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Escher, J.W., Parker, B., and Furman, S.: Influence of alternating magnetic fields on triggered pacemakers. Supplement II to Circulation XLIV (1971) 162.Google Scholar
- 9.Mitchell, J.C., Rustan, P.L., Frazer, Jw., and Hurt, W.D.: Electromagnetic compatibility of cardiac pacemakers. Presented at the 1972 IEEE International Electromagnetic Compatibility Symposium, Arlington Heights IL, and published in the Symposium Record (July 1972).Google Scholar
- 10.Mitchell, J.C, Hurt, W.D., Walter, W.H., III, and Miller, J.K.: Empirical studies of cardiac pacemaker interference. Aerosp. Med. (February 1974) 189-195.Google Scholar
- 13.Rustan, P.L., Hurt, W.D., and Mitchell, J.C.: Microwave oven interference with cardiac pacemakers. Medical Instrumentation 7 53 (1973).Google Scholar
- 14.Sanchez, S.A.: When you transmit, you can turn off a pacemaker. QST (March 1973) 53.Google Scholar