Advertisement

Forest Nutrient Cycling: Influence of Acid Precipitation

  • William H. Smith
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)

Abstract

Acid precipitation is defined as rain or snow having a pH of less than 5.6. The pH parameter is a measurement of the difference in hydrogen ion activity between an unknown solution and a standard buffer of assigned pH value. Upon ionization water yields hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. When the activity of these ions is equal, water is neutral and the pH recorded will be 7. At pH values below 7 water becomes increasingly acid, and above 7 increasingly alkaline. In the absence of air pollutants, the pH of precipitation is presumed to be dominated by carbonic acid formed from ambient carbon dioxide, which produces a pH of approximately 5.6–6.0. The pH of precipitation presently falling in North and Central Europe and in the northeastern United States and adjacent portions of Canada is commonly in the range of 3–5.5. Individual storm events have been recorded with pH values between 2.0 and 3.0.

Keywords

Forest Soil Forest Ecosystem Acid Rain Acid Precipitation Simulated Acid Rain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrahamsen, G., R. Homtveldt, and B. Tveite. 1976a. Impacts of acid precipitation on coniferous forest ecosystems. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 991–1009.Google Scholar
  2. Abrahamsen, G., K. Bjor, R. Homtveldt, and B. Tveite. 1976b. Effects of acid precipitation on coniferous forests. In: F. H. Braeke (Ed.), Impact of Acid Precipitation on Forest and Freshwater Ecosystems in Norway. Research Report No. 6. SNF Project, Olso, Norway, pp. 37–63.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, J., D. Hocking, and M. Nyborg. 1976. Acidity of open and intercepted precipitation in forests and effects on forest soils in Alberta, Canada. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 779–790.Google Scholar
  4. Cogbill, C. V. 1975. The history and character of acid precipitation in eastern North America. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 363–370.Google Scholar
  5. Cribbin, L. D., and D. D. Scacchetti. 1976. Diversity in tree species in southeastern Ohio Betula nigra L. communities. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest EcoGoogle Scholar
  6. Cronan, C. S., W. A. Reiners, R. C. Reynolds, Jr., and G. E. Lang. 1978. Forest floor leaching: Contributions from mineral, organic and carbonic acids in New Hampshire subalpine forests. Science 200:309–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cronan, C. S., and C. L. Schofield. 1979. Aluminum leaching response to acid precipitation: Effects on high-elevation watersheds in the Northeast. Science 204:304–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dochinger, L. S., and T. A. Seliga (Eds.). 1976. Proc. 1st International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, 1074 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Etherington, J. R. 1975. Environment and Plant Ecology. Wiley, New York, 347 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Evans, L. S., N. F. Gmur, and F. DaCosta. 1978. Foliar response of six clones of hybrid poplar. Phytopathology 68:847–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feller, M. C. 1977. Nutrient movement through western hemlock-western red cedar ecosystems in southwestern British Columbia. Ecology 58:1269–1283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frink, C. R., and G. K. Voigt. 1976. Potential effects of acid precipitation on soils in the humid temperate zone. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 685–709.Google Scholar
  13. Galloway, J. N., and E. B. Cowling. 1978. The effects of precipitation on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. A proposed precipitation chemistry network. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 28:229–235.Google Scholar
  14. Galloway, J. N., G. E. Likens, and E. S. Edgerton. 1976. Acid precipitation in the Northeastern United States: pH and acidity. Science 194:722–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Graustein, W. C., K. Cromack, Jr., and P. Sollins. 1977. Calcium oxalate: Occurrence in soils and effect on nutrient and geochemical cycles. Science 198: 1252–1254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grennfelt, P., C. Bengtson, and L. Skärby. 1978. An estimation of the atmospheric input of acidifying substances to a forest ecosystem. Swedish Water and Air Pollution Res. Instit. No. B438, Gothenburg, Sweden, 12 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Grether, D. F. 1976. The effects of a high-stack coal-burning power plant on the relative pH of the superficial bark of hardwood trees. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 913–918.Google Scholar
  18. Grodźinska, K. 1976. Acidity of tree bark as a bioindicator of forest pollution in southern Poland. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 905–911.Google Scholar
  19. Hitchcock, D. R. 1976. Atmospheric sulfates from biological sources. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 26:210–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Husar, R. B., J. P. Lodge, Jr., and D. J. Moore. 1978. Sulfur in the Atmosphere. Proc. Internat. Symp., Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 7–14 Sept. 1977. Atmos. Environ. 12:1–796.Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, D. W., and D. W. Cole. 1976. Sulfate mobility in an outwash soil in western Washington. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), 1st Internat Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 827–835.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, N. M. 1979. Acid rain: Neutralization within the Hubbard Brook ecosystem and regional implications. Science 204:497–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnson, N. M., R. C. Reynolds, and G. E. Likens. 1972. Atmospheric sulfur: Its effect on the chemical weathering of New England. Science 177:514–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Likens, G. E. 1975. Acid precipitation: Our understanding of the phenomenon. Proc. Conf. Emerging Environmental Problems: Acid Precipitation, May 1975, Renssalaerville, N. Y. EPA-902/9-75-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, New York, 115 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Likens, G. E. 1976. Acid Precipitation. Chem. Eng. News 54:29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann, and N. M. Johnson. 1972. Acid rain. Environment 14:33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann, R. S. Pierce, J. S. Eaton, and N. M. Johnson. 1977. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. Springer-Verlag, New York, 146 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liljestrand, H. M., and J. J. Morgan. 1978. Chemical composition of acid precipitation in Pasadena, California. Environ. Sci. Technol. 12:1271–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MacCracken, M. C. 1978. MAP3S: An investigation of atmospheric energy related pollutants in the northeastern United States. Atmos. Environ. 12:649–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mayer, R., and B. Ulrich. 1976. Acidity of precipitation as influenced by the filtering of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen compounds—its role in the element balance and effect on soil. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 737–743.Google Scholar
  31. McColl, J. G., and D. S. Bush. 1978. Precipitation and throughfall chemistry in the San Francisco Bay area. J. Environ. Qual. 7:352–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Odén, S. 1976. The acidity problem—An outline of concepts. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 1–36.Google Scholar
  33. Overrein, L. N. 1972. Sulfur pollution patterns observed; leaching of calcium in forest soil determined. Ambio 1:145–147.Google Scholar
  34. Ovington, J. D. 1962. Quantitative ecology and the woodland ecosystem concept. Adv. Ecol. Res. 1:103–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pack, D. H. 1980. Precipitation chemistry patterns: A two-network data set. Science 208:1143–1145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Perhac, R. M. 1978. Sulfate regional experiment in the northeastern United States: The SURE program. Atmos. Environ. 12:641–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rambo, D. L. 1978. Interim Report: Acid precipitation in the United States, history, extent, sources, prognoses. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Contract No. 68-03-2650. Corvallis, Oregon, 24 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Staxäng, B. 1969 Acidification of bark of some deciduous trees. Oikos 20:224–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tamm, C.O. 1951. Removal of plant nutrients from tree crowns by rain. Physiol. Plant 4:184–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tamm, C. O. 1976. Acid precipitation and forest soils. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 681–683.Google Scholar
  41. Tamm, C. O., and E. B. Cowling. 1976. Acidic precipitation and forest vegetation. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 845–855.Google Scholar
  42. Tamm, C. O., G. Wiklander, and B. Popovic. 1976. Effects of application of sulphuric acid to poor pine forests. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 1011–1024.Google Scholar
  43. Trudgill, S. T. 1977. Soil and Vegetation Systems. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 180 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Tukey, H. B. Jr. 1970. The leaching of substances from plants. Annu. Rev. Pl. Physiol. 21:305–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. U.S.D.A. Forest Service. 1976. Workshop report on acid precipitation and the forest ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-26, U.S. D.A. Forest Service, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, 18 pp.Google Scholar
  46. Wilson, W. E. 1978. Sulfates in the atmosphere: A progress report on project MISTT. Atmos. Environ. 12:537–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wood, T., and F. H. Bormann. 1974. The effects of an artificial acid mist upon the growth of Betula alleghaniensis Britt. Environ. Pollut. 7:259–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wood, T., and F. H. Bormann. 1975. Increases of foliar leaching caused by acidification of an artificial mist. Ambio 4:169–171.Google Scholar
  49. Wood, T., and F. H. Bormann. 1976. Short-term effects of a simulated acid rain upon the growth and nutrient relations of Pinus strobus L. In: L. S. Dochinger and T. A. Seliga (Eds.), Proc. 1st Internat. Symp. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. NE-23, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, pp. 815–825.Google Scholar
  50. Wood, T., and F. H. Bormann. 1977. Short-term effects of a simulated acid rain upon the growth and nutrient relations of Pinus strobus L. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 7:479–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wright, R. F., and E. T. Gjessing. 1976. Acid precipitation: Changes in the chemical composition of lakes. Ambio 5:219–223.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Greeley Memorial LaboratorySchool of Forestry and Environmental Studies Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations