Forest Ecosystem Destruction: A Localized Response to Excessive Air Pollution

  • William H. Smith
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


Under conditions of excessive dose, that is, atypically high atmospheric concentrations of one or more contaminants for extended (or continuous) time periods, the impact on forest ecosystems may be very severe and dramatic. This response is designated a Class III interaction. The reaction of vegetation in this case is characterized by severe morbidity and mortality caused directly by air pollutants.


Forest Ecosystem Sulfur Dioxide Hydrogen Fluoride Tree Stratum Sulfur Dioxide Emission 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Greeley Memorial LaboratorySchool of Forestry and Environmental Studies Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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