Effects of Four Training Programs on Three Kinds of Empathy



Within the counseling/psychotherapy field, the extent to which empathy is a communication skill, an inner experience of the counselor, or the client’s perception is controversial (Gladstein, 1983). The empathy training literature has, however, taken the position that empathy is a behavioral communication skill, emphasizing skill acquisition and performance. Behavioral training technology has been developed to equip trainees with a repertoire of counseling skills. The inner experience of the trainee has been neglected, however, by the empathy training literature (Hackney, 1978; Mahon & Altman, 1977). Partly, this neglect is due to the lack of an adequate conceptualization of empathy that links the complex nature of empathy with the available training technology. A view of empathy is needed that takes into account the counselor’s inner experience, but is still pragmatic enough to relate to the available training technology.


Community College Student Relationship Inventory Empathic Understand Combine Program Counseling Outcome 
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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

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