Advertisement

The Biosynthesis and Hormonal Regulation of Surfactant Formation

  • John M. Johnston
  • John C. Porter
  • P. C. MacDonald
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 101)

Abstract

The respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn, due to hyaline membrane disease, is caused by an inability of the fetal or neonatal lung to synthesize adequate quantities of the lipoprotein, surfactant (1). It has been demonstrated that the Type II ce1I of the lung synthesizes surfactant, a substance which markedly lowers the surface tension of the lung, preventing alveolar collapse (2). The surface-active properties of surfactant are principally attributable to its phospholipids, the composition of which has several unique features. First, approximately 70–80% of the total glycerophospholipids of surfactant are phosphatidylcholines. Moreover, approximately 50% of the phosphatidylcholines consist specifically of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DP-PC). Indeed, the principal surface-active properties of surfactant can be accounted for by the action of DP-PC and, to a lesser degree, phosphatidylglycerol (PG). It is the increase in DP-PC that leads to the increase in the lecithin to sphingomyelin (LIS) ratio in amniotic fluid that heralds fetal lung maturation (for recent reviews see ref. 3–5). Recently, Gluck and associates (6) have also suggested that an increase in PG in amniotic fluid, with an associated decrease in phosphatidylinositol, may be considered an additional marker of fetal lung maturation. The lipid composition of surfactant is illustrated in Figure 1.

Keywords

Amniotic Fluid Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatidic Acid Fetal Lung Lamellar Body 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Avery, M. D., and Mead, J., Am. J. Dis. Child., 77: 517 (1959).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Macklin, C. C., Lancet, 1: 1099 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Van Golde, L. M. G., Am. Rev. Res. Disease, 114: 979 (1976).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Farrell, P. M., and Avery, M. E., Am. Rev. Res. Disease, 111: 657 (1975).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goerke, J., Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 344: 241 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hallman, M., Kulovich, M., Kirkpatrick, E., Sugarman, R. G., and Gluck, L., Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 125: 613 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schultz, F. M., Jimenez, J. M., MacDonald, P. C., and Johnston, J. M., Gynecol. Invest., 5: 222 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jimenez, J. M.,Schultz, F. M., MacDonald, P. C., and Johnston, J. M., Gynecol. Invest., 5: 245 (1974).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jimenez, J. M., Schultz, F. M., and Johnston, J. M., Obstet. Gynecol., 46: 588 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jimenez, J. M., and Johnston, J. M., Ped. Res., 10: 767 (1976).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Delahunty, T. J., and Johnston, J. M., J. Lipid Res., 17: 112 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Delahunty, T. J., Douglas, W. H. J., and Johnston, J. M., submitted for publication (1977).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fisher, H. K., Clevenger, B., Egen, N., and Noterman, J., Am. Rev. Res. Dis., 113: 244 (1976).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dobbs, L., and Mason, R., Am. Rev. Resp. Dis., 115: 321 (1977).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hill, R. N., Spragg, R. G., Wedel, M. K., and Moser, K. M., Ann. of Int. Med., 83: 523 (1975).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Spitzer, H. L., Rice, J. M., MacDonald, P. C., and Johnston, J. M., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 66: 17 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Johnston, J. M., Wylie, M. B., and Reynolds, G., Gynecol. Invest., 8: 49 (1977).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    McMurry, W. C., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 58: 467 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Johnston, J. M., and Spitzer, H. L., unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baranska, J., and Van Golde, L. M. G., Biochim. Biophys. Acta., in press.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chang, Y. Y., and Kennedy, E. P., J. Lipid Res., 8: 456 1967 ).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    van den Bosch, H., and Vagelos, P. R., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 218: 233 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johnston, J. M., Reynolds, G., Wylie, M. B., and MacDonald, P. C., submitted for publication (1977).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jamdar, S. C., and Fallon, H. J., J. Lipid Res., 14: 517 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Caras, I., and Shapiro, B., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 409: 201 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kamfer, J., and Kennedy, E. P., J. Biol. Chem., 239: 1720 (1964).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raetz, C. R. H., Fed. Proc., 36: 638 (1977).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hauth, J. C., Parker, C. R., MacDonald, P. C., Porter, J. C., and Johnston, J. M., Obstet. Gynecol, in press (1977).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lam, T. J., Can. J. Zool., 47: 865 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Josimovich, J. B., Merisko, K., Boccella, L., Endocrinology, 100: 557 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hamosh, M., and Hamosh, P., J. Clin. Invest. 59: 1002 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Johnston
    • 1
  • John C. Porter
    • 1
  • P. C. MacDonald
    • 1
  1. 1.The Cecil H. and Ida Green Center for Reproductive Biology Sciences and the Departments of Biochemistry and Obstetrics-GynecologyUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical SchoolDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations