Vaccination Against Bovine Babesiosis

  • L. L. Callow
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 93)


Among the first to practice vaccination against babesiosis were Pound (1897) in Australia and Connaway & Francis (1899) in the United States of America. In Australia the need was to check the disastrous losses which accompanied the epizootic spread of recently introduced babesiosis (Seddon 1952), whereas in the United States the measure was adopted to protect susceptible northern cattle that were introduced to what was then the enzootic area of the South.


Vaccine Strain Inoculation Rate Vaccine Production Blood Parasite Nonspecific Immunity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anon. 1975. Cattle Tick in Australia. Cattle Tick Control Commission Inquiry Report 1973. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, pp. 108.Google Scholar
  2. Bishop, J.P. & Adams, L.G. 1974. Babesia bigemina: immune response of cattle inoculated with irradiated parasites. Exp. Parasitol. 35: 35–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bodin, S., Enhorning, G., Olson, H. & Winqvist, G. 1961. Die Anzahl der Lymphozyten im Blut von Rinder bei lymphatischer Leukose und Piroplasmose. Acta Vet. Scand. 2 (Supp. 2): 47–54.Google Scholar
  4. Brocklesby, D.W., Purneil, R.E. & Seilwood, S.A. 1972. The effect of irradiation on intra-erythrocytic stages of Babesia major. Brit. Vet. J. 128: iii–v.Google Scholar
  5. Brocklesby, D.W., Zwart, D. & Perie, N.M. 1971. Serological evidence for the identification of Babesia major in Britain. Res. Vet Sci. 12: 285–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, K.N. 1971. Protective immunity to malaria provides a model for the survival of cells in an immunologically hostile environment. Nature (Lond.) 230: 163–167.Google Scholar
  7. Callow, L.L. 1964. Strain immunity in babesiosis. Nature (Lond.) 204: 1213–1214.Google Scholar
  8. Callow, L.L. 1967. Sterile immunity, coinfectious immunity and strain differences in Babesia bigemina infections. Parasitology 57: 455–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Callow, L.L. 1968. A note on homologous strain immunity in Babesia argentina infections. Aust Vet. J. 44: 268–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Callow, L.L. 1971. The control of babesiosis with a highly infective attenuated vaccine. In Proceedings of the 19th World Veterinary Congress. 1: 357–360.Google Scholar
  11. Callow, L.L., Emmerson, F.R., Parker, R.J. & Knott, S.G. 1976a. Infection rates and outbreaks of disease due to Babesia argentina in unvaccinated cattle on five beef properties in Southeast Queensland. Aust. Vet. J. 52: 446–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Callow, L.L. & Hoyte, H.M.D. 1961. Transmission experiments using Babesia bigemina, Theileria mutans, Borrelia sp. and the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. Aust. Vet. J. 37: 381–390.Google Scholar
  13. Callow, L.L. & McGavin, M.D. 1963. Cerebral babesiosis due to Babesia argentina. Aust. Vet. J. 39: 15–21.Google Scholar
  14. Callow, L.L. & McGregor, W. 1969. Vaccination against Babesia argentina infection in cattle during chemoprophylaxis with a quinuronium compound. Aust. Vet. J. 45:408–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Callow, L.L. & McGregor, W. 1970. The effect of imidocarb against Babesia argentina and Babesia bigemina infections of cattle. Aust. Vet. J. 46: 195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Callow, L.L., McGregor, W., Parker, R.J. & Dalgliesh, R.J. 1974a. The immunity of cattle to Babesia argentina after drug sterilization of infections of varying duration. Aust. Vet. J. 50: 6–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Callow, L.L., McGregor, W., Parker, R.J. & Dalgliesh, R.J. 1974b. Immunity of cattle to Babesia bigemina following its elimination from the host, with observations on antibody levels detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Aust. Vet. J. 50: 12–15.Google Scholar
  18. Callow, L.L. & Mellors, L.T. 1966. A new vaccine for Babesia argentina infection prepared in splenectomised calves. Aust. Vet. J. 42: 464–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Callow, L.L. & Parker, R.J. 1969. Cortisone-induced relapses in Babesia argentina infections of cattle. Aust. Vet. J. 45: 103–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Callow, L.L. & Pepper, P.M. 1974. Measurement of and correlations between fever, changes in the packed cell volume and parasitaemia in the evaluation of the susceptibility of cattle to infection with Babesia argentina. Aust. Vet. J. 50: 1–5.Google Scholar
  21. Callow, L.L., Quiroga, Q.C. & McCosker, P.J. 1976b. Serological comparison of Australian and South American strains of Babesia argentina and Anaplasma marginale. Int. J. Parasitol. 6: 307–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Callow, L.L. & Tammemagi, L. 1967. Vaccination against bovine babesiosis. Infectivity and virulence of blood from animals either recovered from or reacting to Babesia argentina. Aust. Vet. J. 43: 249–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Clark, I. & Allison, A. 1976. Immune defences against blood parasites. New Sci. 69: 668–669.Google Scholar
  24. Clark, I.A., Allison, A.C. & Cox, F.E.G. 1976. Protection of mice against Babesia and Plasmodium with BCG. Nature (Lond.) 259: 309–311.Google Scholar
  25. Coggeshall, L.T. 1943. Immunity in malaria. Medicine (Bait.) 22: 87–102.Google Scholar
  26. Connaway, J.W. & Franics, M. 1899. Texas fever. Experiments made by the Missouri experiment station and the Missouri state board of agriculture in cooperation with the Texas experiment station in immunizing northern breeding cattle against Texas fever for the southern trade. Mo. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 48: 1–64.Google Scholar
  27. Cox, F.E.G. & Young, A.S. 1969. Acquired immunity to Babesia microti and Babesia rodhaini in mice. Parasitology 59: 257–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Curnow, J.A. 1968. In vitro agglutination of bovine erythrocytes infected with Babesia argentina. Nature (Lond.) 217: 267–268.Google Scholar
  29. Curnow, J.A. 1973a. Studies on antigenic changes and strain differences in Babesia argentina infections. Aust. Vet. J. 49: 279–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Curnow, J.A. 1973b. Studies on the epizootiology of bovine babesiosis in northeastern New South Wales. Aust. Vet. J. 49: 284–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dalgliesh, R.J. 1968. Field observations on Babesia argentina vaccination in Queensland. Aust. Vet. J. 44: 103–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dalgliesh, R.J. 1971. Dimethyl sulphoxide in the low-temperature preservation of Babesia bigemina. Res. Vet. Sci. 12: 469–471.Google Scholar
  33. Dalgliesh, R.J. 1972a. Theoretical and practical aspects of freezing parasitic protozoa. Aust. Vet. J. 48: 233–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dalgliesh, R.J. 1972b. Effects of low temperature preservation and route of inoculation on infectivity of Babesia bigemina in blood diluted with glycerol. Res. Vet. Sci. 13: 540–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dalgliesh, R.J., Dimmock, C.K., Hill, M.W.M. & Mellors, L.T. 1976. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in acute Babesia argentina infections in splenectomized calves. Exp. Parasitol 40: 124–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dalgliesh, R.J. & Mellors, L.T. 1974. Survival of the parasitic protozoan, Babesia bigemina, in blood cooled at widely different rates to -196°C. Int. J. Parasitol. 4: 169–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Daly, G.D. & Hall, W.T.K. 1955. A note on the susceptibility of British and some Zebu-type cattle to tick fever (babesiosis). Aust. Vet. J. 31: 152.Google Scholar
  38. Davies, S.F.M., Joyner, L.P. & Kendall, S.B. 1958. Studies on Babesia divergem (M’Fadyean and Stockman, 1911). Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 52: 206–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dimmock, C.K. & Bell, K. 1970. Haemolytic disease of the newborn in calves. Aust. Vet. J. 46: 44–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Emmerson, F.R., Knott, S.G. & Callow, L.L. 1976. Vaccination with. Babesia argentina in 5 beef herds in Southeast Queensland. Aust. Vet. J. 52: 52: 451–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Emmerson, F.R., Knott, S.G. & McGregor, W. 1974. Tick fevers — and how to prevent them. Queensl. Agric. J. 100: 405–415.Google Scholar
  42. Garnham, P.C.C. 1970. The role of the spleen in protozoal infections with special reference to splenectomy. Acta Trop. 27: 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Goldman, M. & Rosenberg, A.S. 1974. Immunofluorescence studies of the small Babesia species of cattle from different geographical areas. Res. Vet Sci. 16: 351–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Goodger, B.V. 1971. Preparation and preliminary assessment of purified antigens in the passive haemagglutination test for bovine babesiosis. Aust. Vet. J. 47:251–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Goodger, B.V. 1973. Further studies of haemagglutinating antigens of Babesia bigemina. Aust. Vet. J. 49: 81–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Goodger, B.V. & Mahoney, D.F. 1974a. Evaluation of the passive haemagglutination test for the diagnosis of Babesia argentina infection in cattle. Aust. Vet. J. 50: 246–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Goodger, B.V. & Mahoney, D.F. 1974b. A rapid slide agglutination test for the herd diagnosis of Babesia argentina infection. Aust. Vet. J. 50: 250–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hall, W.T.K. 1960. The immunity of calves to Babesia argentina infection. Aust. Vet. J. 36: 361–366.Google Scholar
  49. Hall, W.T.K. 1963. The immunity of calves to tick-transmitted Babesia argentina infection. Aust. Vet. J. 39: 386–389.Google Scholar
  50. Hall, W.T.K., Tammemagi, L. & Johnston, L.A.Y. 1968. Bovine babesiosis: the immunity of calves to Babesia bigemina infection. Aust. Vet. J. 44: 259–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hoyte, H.M.D. 1961. Initial development of infections with Babesia bigemina. J. Protozool. 8: 462–466.Google Scholar
  52. Hoyte, H.M.D. 1965. Further observations on the initial development of infections with Babesia bigemina. J. Protozool. 12: 83–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnston, L.A.Y. 1967. Epidemiology of bovine babesiosis in northern Queensland. Aust. Vet. J. 43: 427–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnston, L.A.Y. 1968. The incidence of clinical babesiosis in cattle in Queensland. Aust. Vet. J. 44: 265–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Johnston, L.A.Y., Pearson, R.D. & Leatch, G. 1973. Evaluation of an indirect fluorescent antibody test for detecting Babesia argentina infection in cattle. Aust. Vet. J. 49: 373–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Johnston, L.A.Y. & Tammemagi, L. 1969. Bovine babesiosis: duration of latent infection and immunity to Babesia argentina. Aust Vet. J. 45: 445–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kemron, A., Hadani, A., Egyed, M., Pipano, E. & Neuman, M. 1964. Studies on bovine piroplasmosis caused by Babesia bigemina. III. The relationship between the number of parasites in the inoculum and the severity of the response. Refu. Vet. 112–108.Google Scholar
  58. de Kock, G. & Quinlan, J.B. 1926. Splenectomy in domesticated animals and its sequelae, with special reference to anaplasmosis in sheep. In 11th and 12th Reports of the Director of the Veterinary Education and Research, Department of Agriculture, South Africa; Pretoria, South Africa. 369–480.Google Scholar
  59. Langford, G., Knott, S.G., Dimmock, C.K. & Derrington, P. 1971. Haemolytic disease of newborn calves in a dairy herd in Queensland. Aust Vet J. 47: 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Leeflang, P. & Perie, N.M. 1972. Comparative immunofluorescent studies on 4 Babesia species of cattle. Res. Vet. Sci. 13: 342–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Legg, J. 1935. The occurrence of bovine babesiellosis in Northern Australia. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research of Australia, Pamphlet No. 56: 148.Google Scholar
  62. Legg, J. 1939. Recent observations on the premunization of cattle against tick fevers in Queensland. Aust. Vet J. 25: 46–53.Google Scholar
  63. Levine, N.D. 1971. Taxonomy of the piroplasms. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 90: 2–33.Google Scholar
  64. Löhr, K.F. 1969. Immunisierung gegen Babesiose und Anapiasmose von 40 nach Kenya importierten Charollais-Rindern und Bericht über Erscheinungen der Photosensibilität bei diesen Tieren. Zentralbl. Veterinaermed. B16: 40–46.Google Scholar
  65. Löhr, K.F. 1973. Susceptibility of non-splenectomized and splenectomized Sahiwal cattle to experimental Babesia bigemina infection. Zentralbl. Veterinaermed. B20: 52–56.Google Scholar
  66. Ludford, C.L., Hall, W.T.K., Sulzer, A.J. & Wilson M. 1972. Babesia argentina, Plasmodium vivax, and P. falciparum: antigenic cross-reactions. Exp. Parasitol. 32: 317–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Mahoney, D.F. 1962. The epidemiology of babesiosis in cattle. Aust. J. Sci. 24: 310–313.Google Scholar
  68. Mahoney, D.F. 1967a. Bovine babesiosis: the passive immunization of calves against Babesia argentina with special reference to the role of complement fixing antibodies. Exp. Parasitol. 20: 119–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mahoney, D.F. 1967b. Bovine babesiosis: the immunization of cattle with killed Babesia argentina. Exp. Parasitol. 20: 125–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mahoney, D.F. 1967c. Bovine babesiosis: preparation and assessment of complement-fixing antigens. Exp. Parasitol. 20: 232–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mahoney, D.F. 1969. Bovine babesiasis: a study of factors concerned in transmission. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 63: 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Mahoney, D.F. 1971. Immunization against Babesia argentina (Lignieres, 1903). Proceedings of the 19th World Veterinary Congress. 1: 351–356.Google Scholar
  73. Mahoney, D.F. 1973. Babesiosis of cattle. Aust. Meat Res. Comm. Rev. 23: 1–21.Google Scholar
  74. Mahoney, D.F. & Goodger, B.V. 1969. Babesia argentina: serum changes in infected calves. Exp. Parasitol. 24: 375–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mahoney, D.F. & Goodger, B.V. 1972. Babesia argentina: immunogenicity of plasma from infected animals. Exp. Parasitol. 32: 71–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Mahoney, D.F. & Mirre, G.B. 1971. Bovine babesiasis: estimation of infection rates in the tick vector Boophilus microplus (Canestrini). Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 65: 309–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Mahoney, D.F. & Mirre, G.B. 1974. Babesia argentina: the infection of spleen-ectomized calves with extracts of larval ticks (Boophilus microplus). Res. Vet. Sci. 16:112–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mahoney, D.F. & Ross, D.R. 1972. Epizootiological factors in the control of bovine babesiosis. Aust. Vet. J. 48: 292–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mahoney, D.F., Wright, I.G. & Ketterer, P.J. 1973a. Babesia argentina: the infectivity and immunogenicity of irradiated blood parasites for splen-ectomized calves. Int. J. Parasitol. 3: 209–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mahoney, D.F., Wright, I.G. & Mirre, G.B. 1973b. Bovine babesiasis: the persistence of immunity to Babesia argentina and Babesia bigemina in calves (Bos taurus) after naturally acquired infection. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol 67: 197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. McCosker, P.J. 1975. Control of piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis in cattle. A practical manual. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. pp. 64.Google Scholar
  82. Morzaria, S.P., Brocklesby, D.W., Harradine, D.L. & Barnett, S.F. 1974. Babesia major in Britain: infectivity of suspensions derived from ground-up Haemaphysalis punctata nymphs. Int. J. Parasitol. 1: 437–438.Google Scholar
  83. Newton, L.G. & O’Sullivan, PJ. 1969. Chemoprophylaxis in Babesia argentina infection in cattle. Aust. Vet. J. 45: 404–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Nuttall, G.H.F. & Graham-Smith, G.S. 1907. Studies on the morphology and life-history of the parasite. (Canine piroplasmosis 6). J. Hyg. 7: 232–272.Google Scholar
  85. Nuttall, G.H.F. & Graham-Smith, G.S. 1908. The mode of multiplication of Piroplasma bovis, P. pitheci in the circulating blood compared with that of P. canis with notes on other species of Piroplasma. Parasitology 1: 134–142.Google Scholar
  86. Olson, H. 1961. Studien über das Auftreten und die Verbreitung der Rinder-leukose in Schweden. Acta Vet. Scand. 2(Supp. 2) 13–46.Google Scholar
  87. O’Sullivan, P.J. & Callow, L.L. 1966. Loss of infectivity of a vaccine strain of Babesia argentina for Boophilus microplus. Aust. Vet. J. 42: 252–254.Google Scholar
  88. Parker, R. 1973. A direct counting technique for estimating high parasitaemias in infections of Babesia argentina, Babesia bigemina, and Plasmodium berghei. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 67: 387–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Phillips, R.S. 1971a. Evidence that piroplasms can undergo antigenic variation. Nature (Lond.) 231: 323.Google Scholar
  90. Phillips, R.S. 1971b. Immunity of rats and mice following injection with 60Co-irradiated Babesia rodhaini infected red cells. Parasitology 62: 221–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Pipano, E. 1969a. Immunization of cattle against Babesiella berbera infection. I. Infection of cattle with blood from patent and latent carriers. Refu. Vet. 26:11–18. Google Scholar
  92. Pipano, E. 1969b. Immunization of cattle against Babesiella berbera infection. II. Immunization of calves in the field with blood from latent carriers. Refu. Vet. 26: 113–117.Google Scholar
  93. Potgieter, F.T. & Van Vuuren, A.S. 1974. The transmission of Babesia bovis using frozen infective material obtained from Boophilus microplus larvae. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 41: 79–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pound, C.J. 1897. Tick fever. Notes on the inoculation of bulls as a preventive against tick fever at Rathdowney and Rosedale. Queensland Agric. J. 1:473–477.Google Scholar
  95. Purnell, R.E. & Joyner, L.P. 1967. Artificial feeding technique for Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and the transmission of Theileria parva from the salivary secretion. Nature (Lond.) 216: 484–485.Google Scholar
  96. Rajamanickam, C. 1970. Blood protozoan diseases of imported temperate breeds of cattle in West Malaysia. Kajian Vet. 2: 145–152.Google Scholar
  97. Rees, C.W. 1934. Characteristics of the piroplasms Babesia argentina and Babesia bigemina in the United States. J. Agric. Res. 48: 427–438.Google Scholar
  98. Riek, R.F. 1963. Immunity to babesiosis. In Immunity to Protozoa, P.C.C. Garnham, Pierce, A.E. & Roitt, I., Eds.: 160–179. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  99. Riek, R.F. 1964. The life cycle of Babesia bigemina (Smith and Kilborne 1893) in the tick vector Boophilus microplus (Canestrini). Aust. J. Agric. Res. 15:802–821.Google Scholar
  100. Riek, R.F. 1966. The life cycle of Babesia argentina (Lignières 1903)(Sporozoa: Piroplasmidea) in the tick vector Boophilus microplus (Canestrini). Aust. J. Agric. Res. 17: 247–254.Google Scholar
  101. Rogers, R.J. 1971a. The acquired resistance to Babesia argentina of cattle exposed to light infestation with cattle tick (Boophilus microplus). Aust. Vet. J. 47:237–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Rogers, R.J. 1971b. Observations on the pathology of Babesia argentina infections in cattle. Aust Vet. J. 47: 242–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rogers, R.J. 1971c. An evaluation of tick fever outbreaks in Northern Queensland in recent years. Aust Vet J. 47: 415–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Ross, D.R. & Mahoney, D.F. 1974. Bovine babesiosis: computer simulation of Babesia argentina parasite rates in Bos taurus cattle. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 68: 385–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Roy-Smith, F. 1971. The prophylactic effects of imidocarb against Babesia argentina and Babesia bigemina infections of cattle. Aust. Vet. J. 47: 418–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ryley, J.F. 1964. A chemoprophylactic approach to babesiosis. Res. Vet. Sci. 5:411–418.Google Scholar
  107. Schmidt, G., Hirt, R. & Fischer, R. 1969. Babesicidal effect of basically substituted carbanilides. I: Activity against Babesia rodhaini in mice. Res. Vet. Sci. 10: 530–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Seddon, H.R. 1952. Diseases of domestic animals in Australia, Part 4. Protozoan and viral diseases. Service Publication No. 8. Commonwealth Department of Health, Canberra, pp. 214.Google Scholar
  109. Seddon, H.R. 1968. Diseases of domestic animals in Australia, Part 3 (Rev. by H.E. Albiston). Arthropod infestations (Ticks and mites). Service Publication No. 7. Commonwealth Department of Health, Canberra, pp. 170.Google Scholar
  110. Sergent, E., Donatien, A., Parrot, L. & Lestoquard, F. 1945. Études sur les piroplasmoses bovines. Institut Pasteur d’Algérie, Alger, pp. 816.Google Scholar
  111. Sergent, E., Parrot, L. & Donatien, A. 1924. Une question de terminologie: immuniser et premunir. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 17: 37–38.Google Scholar
  112. Sergent, E., Sergent, Et. & Catanei, A. 1934. Un type de maladie à prémunition: le paludisme des passeraux à Plasmodium relictum. Ann. Inst Pasteur (Paris). 53: 101–119.Google Scholar
  113. Simitch, T., Petrovitch, Z. & Rakovec, R. 1955. Les espèces de Babesiella du boeuf d’Europe. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Alger. 33: 310–314.Google Scholar
  114. Smith, T. & Kilborne, F.L. 1893. Investigations into the nature, causation and prevention of Texas or Southern cattle fever. U.S. Dept Agric. Bur. Anim. Ind. Bull. 1: 1–301.Google Scholar
  115. Taliaferro, W.H. 1949. Immunity to the malaria infections. In Malariology. M.F. Boyd, Ed. Vol. 2: 935–965. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia and London.Google Scholar
  116. Tchernomoretz, I. 1943. Blocking of the brain capillaries by parasitized red blood cells in Babesiella berbera infections in cattle. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 37: 77–79.Google Scholar
  117. Thomson, J.G. 1933. Immunity in malaria. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 26: 483–514.Google Scholar
  118. Tidswell, F. 1899. Report on Protective Inoculation Against Tick Fever. New South Wales Department of Public Health. Sydney, Australia. 16 pp.Google Scholar
  119. Todorovic, R.A., Gonzalez, E.F. & Adams, L.G. 1973. Bovine babesiosis: sterile immunity to Babesia bigemina and Babesia argentina infections. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 5: 234–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Todorovic, R.A. & Kuttler, K.L. 1974. A babesiosis card agglutination test. Am. J. Vet. Res. 35: 1347–1350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Todorovic, R.A., Lopez, L.A., Lopez, A.G. & Gonzalez, E.F. 1975. Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis: control by premunition and chemoprophylaxis. Exp. Parasitol. 37: 92–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Uilenberg, G. 1969. Notes sur les babésioses et l’anaplasmose des bovins à Madagascar. II. Influence de la splénectomie. Rev. Élevage Méd. Vét. Pays Trop. 22: 237–248.Google Scholar
  123. Uilenberg, G. 1970. Notes sur les babesioses et l’anaplasmose des bovins à Madagascar. V.A. Immunité et prémunition. B. Epizootologie. Rev. Élevage Méd. Vét. Pays Trop. 23: 439–454.Google Scholar
  124. Uilenberg, G. 1971. Notes sur les babésioses et l’anaplasmose des bovins à Madagascar. VI. Prémunition artificielle. Rev. Élevage Méd. Vét. Pays Trop. 24: 23–35.Google Scholar
  125. Wilson, S.G. 1964. Babesiasis in cattle in the Netherlands. I. Identification of Babesia major and B. divergens. Tijdschr. Diergeneesk. 89: 1783–1790.Google Scholar
  126. Zuckerman, A. 1964. Autoimmunization and other types of indirect damage to host cells as factors in certain protozoan diseases. Exp. Parasitol. 15: 138–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Zuckerman, A. & Ristic, M. 1968. Blood parasite antigens and antibodies. In Infectious Blood Diseases of Man and Animals. D. Weinman and M. Ristic Eds., Vol. 1: 79–122. Academic Press, Inc. New York, N.Y.Google Scholar
  128. Zwart, D., Van den Ende, M.C., Kouwenhoven, B. & Buys, J. 1968. The difference between B. bigemina and a Dutch strain of B. major. Tijdschr. Diergeneesk. 93: 126–140.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. L. Callow
    • 1
  1. 1.Queensland Department of Primary IndustriesAnimal Research InstituteYeerongpillyAustralia

Personalised recommendations