Advertisement

Antigenic Variation in the Salivarian Trypanosomes

  • John J. Doyle
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 93)

Abstract

The term “antigenic variation” has been widely used to describe a phenomenon in which, during infection of the final host by what is taxonomically considered a single species of pathogenic protozoa, there arises a succession of parasite populations, each recognized as antigenically different by the host’s immune response. This results in the formation of antibodies, specific for each population, which are demonstrable by tests recognizing surface antigens of the parasite or parasitized cell such as agglutination and lysis.

Keywords

Antigenic Variation Blood Parasite Trypanosoma Brucei Antigenic Type Bloodstream Form 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Allsopp, B.A. 1973. Separation of the components of Trypanosoma brucei subgroups 4S (surface) antigen. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67: 270–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allsopp, B.A. & Njogu, A.R. 1971. Studies on the surface sugar composition of the antigens of Trypanosoma brucei subgroup. E. Afr. Trypanosomiasis Res. Organ. Annu. Rep. 1971: 21–33.Google Scholar
  3. Allsopp, B.A. & Njogu, A.R. 1973. Sugar composition of Trypanosoma brucei subgroup 4S (surface) antigens. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66: 347.Google Scholar
  4. Allsopp, B.A. & Njogu, A.R. 1974. Monosaccharide composition of the surface glycoprotein antigens of Trypanosoma brucei. Parasitology 69: 271–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Allsopp, B.A., Njogu, A.R. & Humphryes, K.C. 1971. Nature and location of Trypanosoma brucei subgroup exoantigen and its relationship to 4S antigen. Exp. Parasitol. 29: 271–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aschroft, M.T. 1960. A comparison between a syringe-passaged and a tse-tse fly-transmitted line of a strain of Trypanosoma rhodesiense. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 54: 44–53.Google Scholar
  7. Balber, A.E. 1972. Trypanosoma brucei: fluxes of the morphological variants in intact and X-irradiated mice.Exp. Parasitol. 31: 307–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Balber, A.E. 1974. Trypanosoma brucei: attenuation by corticosteroids of the anaemia of infected mice.Exp. Parasitol. 35: 209–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beale, G.H. 1954. The Genetics of Paramecium Aurelia. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  10. Beale, G.H. 1974. Genetics of antigenic variation in Paramecium: a model system. In Parasites in the Immunized Host: Mechanisms of Survival, Porter, R. & Knight, J., Eds.: 21–27. Ciba Foundation Symposium 25 (new series). Associated Scientific Publishers. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  11. Behin, R., Mauel, J., Biroum-Noerjasin & Rowe, D.S. 1975. Studies on cell-mediated immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis of guinea-pigs and mice by Leishmania enriettii. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. In press.Google Scholar
  12. Boehringer, S. & Hecker, H. 1974a. Quantitative ultrastructural differences between blood and midgut forms of Trypanosoma bruce brucei. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Parasitol. 1: 21–22.Google Scholar
  13. Boehringer, S. & Hecker, H. 1974b. Quantitative ultrastructural differences between strains of Trypanosoma brucei subgroup during transformation in the blood. J. Protozool. 21: 694–698.Google Scholar
  14. Bowman, I.B.R. 1974. Intermediary metabolism of pathogenic flagellates. In Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis: 255–271.Ciba Foundation Symposium 20 (new series). Associated Scientific Publishers. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  15. Bradley, DJ. 1974. Letter: Genetic control of natural resistance to Leishmania donovani. Nature (Lond.) 250: 353–354.Google Scholar
  16. Broom, J.C. & Brown, H.C. 1940. Studies in trypanosomiasis. IV. Notes on the serological characters of Trypanosoma brucei after cyclical development in Glossina morsitans. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34: 53–64.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, R.C., Evans, D.A. & Vickerman, K. 1973. Changes in oxidative metabolism and ultrastructure accompanying differentiation of the mitochondrion in Trypanosoma brucei Int. J. Parasitol. 3: 691–704.Google Scholar
  18. Cantrell, W. 1958. Mutation rate and antigenic variation in Trypanosoma equiperdum. J. Infect. Dis. 103: 263–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Citkes, M. & Friberg, S., Jr. 1971. Expression of H-2 and Moloney Leukemia virus determined cell-surface antigens in synchronized cultures of a mouse cell line. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68: 566–569.Google Scholar
  20. Cross, G.A.M. 1973. Identification and purification of a class of soluble surface proteins from Trypanosoma brucei. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67: 261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cross, G.A.M. 1975. Identification, purification and properties of clone-specific glycoprotein antigens constituting the surface coat of Trypanosoma brucei. Parasitology 71: 393–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cross, G.A.M. & Johnson, J.G. 1976. Structure and organization of the variant specific surface antigens of Trypanosoma brucei. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on the Biochemistry of Host Parasite Relationships. Van den Bossche, H., Ed.: 413–420. Elsevier Publishing Company. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  23. Cunningham, M.P. 1966. The preservation of viable metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma rhodesiense and some studies of the antigenicity of the organisms. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60: 126.Google Scholar
  24. Cunningham, M.P. & Vickerman, K. 1962. Antigenic analysis in the Trypanosoma brucei group, using the agglutination reaction. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 56: 48–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dar, F.K., Paris, J. & Wilson, A.J. 1973. Serological studies on trypanosomiasis in East Africa. IV. Comparison of antigenic types of Trypanosoma vivax group organisms. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 67: 319–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dar, F.K., & Wilson, A.J. 1973. Serological studies on trypanosomiasis in East Africa. I. Introduction and techniques. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 67: 21–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. De Raadt, P. 1974. Immunity and antigenic variation: clinical observations suggestive of immune phenomena in African trypanosomiasis. In Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis: 199–216. Ciba Foundation Symposium 20 (new series). Associated Scientific Publishers. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  28. Desowitz, R.S. 1959. Studies on immunity and host-parasite relationships. I. The immunological response of resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle to trypanosomal challenge. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 53: 293–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Desowitz, R.S. 1970. African trypanosomes. In Immunity to Parasitic Animals, Jackson, G.J., Herman, R. & Singer, I. Eds. Vol. 2: 551–596. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, N.Y.Google Scholar
  30. Doyle, J.J., Behin, R., Mauel, J. & Rowe, D.S. 1974. Antibody-induced movement of membrane components of Leishmania enriettii. J. Exp. Med. 139: 1061–1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Duxbury, R.E., Sadun, E.H. & Anderson, J.S. 1972. Experimental infections with African trypanosomes. II. Immunization of mice and monkeys with a gamma-irradiated, recently isolated human strain of Trypanosoma rhodesiense. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 21: 885–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Duxbury, R.E., Anderson, J.S., Wellde, B.T., Sadun, E.H. & Muriithi, I.E. 1972. Trypanosoma congalense — Immunisation of mice, dogs and cattle with gamma-irradiated parasites. Exp. Parasitol. 32: 527–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Duxbury, R.E., Sadun, E.H., Schoenbechler, M.J. & Stroupe, D.A. 1974. Trypanosoma rhodesiense: protection in mice by inoculations of homologous parasite products. Exp. Parasitol. 36: 70–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ehrlich, P., Roehl, W. & Gulblausen, R. 1909. Ueber serumfeste Trypanosomenstaemme. Z. Immunitaetsforsch. 3: 296–299.Google Scholar
  35. Fairbairn, H. & Culwick, A.T. 1946. A new approach to trypanosomiasis. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 40: 421–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fiennes, R.N. 1970. Pathogenesis and pathology of animal trypanosomiasis. In The African Trypanosomiasis, Mulligan, H.W., Ed.: 729–750. Allen & Unwin. London, England.Google Scholar
  37. Fruit, J.N., Van Meirvenne, N., Petitprez, A., Afchain, D., Le Ray, D. & Bout, D. 1974. Antigenic studies on the surface coat of T.(T).b.brucei. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Parasitology. 2: 1095.Google Scholar
  38. Goedbloed, E., Ligthart, G.S., Minter, D.M., Wilson, A.J., Dar, F.K. & Paris, J. 1973. Serological studies of trypanosomiasis in East Africa. II. Comparisons of antigenic types of Trypanosoma brucei subgroup organisms isolated from wild tsetse flies. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 67: 31–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gray, A.R. 1962. The influence of antibody on serological variation in Trypanosoma brucei. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 56: 4–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gray, A.R. 1965a. Antigenic variation in a strain of Trypanosoma brucei transmitted by Glossina morsitans and G. palpalis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 41: 195–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gray, A.R. 1965b. Antigenic variation in clones of Trypanosoma brucei. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 59: 27–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gray, A.R. 1966a. The antigenic relationships of strains of Trypanosoma brucei isolated in Nigeria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 44: 263–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gray, A.R. 1966b. Antigenic variation in clones of Trypanosoma brucei. II. The drug sensitivities of variants of a clone and the antigenic relationships of trypanosomes before and after drug treatment. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 60: 265–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gray, A.R. 1967. Some principles of the immunology of trypanosomiasis. Bull. WHO 37: 177–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gray, A.R. 1970. A study of the antigenic relationships of isolates of Trypanosoma brucei collected from a herd of cattle kept in one locality for five years. J. Gen. Microbiol. 62: 301–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gray, A.R. 1972. Variable agglutinogenic antigens of Trypanosoma gambiense and their distribution among isolates of the trypanosome collected in different places in Nigeria. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66: 263–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gray, A.R. 1974. Antigenic similarities among isolates of Trypanosoma gambiense from different countries in Africa. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68: 150–151.Google Scholar
  48. Gray, A.R. 1975. A pattern in the development of agglutogenic antigens of cyclically transmitted isolates of Trypanosoma gambiense. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69: 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hirumi, H. et al. 1977 Salivarian trypanosoma: in vitro cultivation of blood-stream forms using bovine fibroblast monolayers. Science. In press.Google Scholar
  50. Hoare, C.A. 1970. The mammalian trypanosomes of Africa. In The African Trypanosomiases. Mulligan, H.W., Ed.: 3–59. Allen & Unwin. London, England.Google Scholar
  51. Inoki, S. 1960. Studies on antigenic variation in the Welcome strain of Trypanosoma gambiense. II. On the first relapse appearing in mice treated with human plasma. Biken J. 3: 223–228.Google Scholar
  52. Inoki, S., Kitaura, T., Nakabayashi, T. & Kurogochi, H. 1952. Studies on the immunological variations in Trypanosoma gambiense. I. A new variation system and a new experimental method. Med. J. Osaka Univ. 3: 357–371.Google Scholar
  53. Inoki, S., Nakabayashi, T., Osaki, H. & Fukukita, S. 1957. Studies on the immunological variation in Trypanosoma gambiense. Med. J. Osaka Univ. 7: 731–743.Google Scholar
  54. Inoki, S., Osaki, H. & Nakabayashi, T. 1956. Studies on the immunological variation in Trypanosoma gambiense II. Verifications of the new variation system by Ehrlich’s and in vitro methods. Med. J. Osaka Univ. 7: 165–173.Google Scholar
  55. Jones, T.W. & Clarkson, M.J. 1972a. The effect of tsetse passage on variants of Trypanosoma vivax. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66: 336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jones, T.W. & Clarkson, M.J. 1972b. The effect of syringe and cyclical passage on antigenic variants of Trypanosoma vivax. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 66: 303–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jones, T.W. & Clarkson, M.J. 1974. The timing of antigenic variation in Trypanosoma vivax. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 68: 485–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kerbel, R.S., Birbeck, M.S.C., Robertson, D. & Cartwright, P. 1975. Ultra-structural and serological studies on the resistance of activated B cells to the cytotoxic effects of antiimmunoglobulin serum. Patch and cap formation of surface immunoglobulin on mitotic B lymphocytes. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 20: 161–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ketteridge, D.S. 1971. Studies on rodent-adapted Trypanosoma vivax. Ph.D. thesis. University of Glasgow. Glasgow, Scotland.Google Scholar
  60. Ketteridge, D.S. 1972. Trypanosoma vivax: surface interrelationships between host and parasite. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66: 324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lanham, S.M. & Taylor, A.E.R. 1972. Some properties of the immunogens (protective antigens) of a single variant of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. J. Gen. Microbiol. 72: 101–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Le Ray, D., Van Meirvenne, N. & Jadin, J.B. 1973. Immunoelectrophoretic characterization of common and variable antigens of Trypanosoma brucei. Trans. R. Soc. Trop, Med. Hyg. 67: 273–274.Google Scholar
  63. Lerner, R.A., Oldstone, M.B. & Cooper, N.R. 1971. Cell cycle-dependent immune lysis of Moloney virus-transformed lymphocytes: presence of viral antigen, accessibility to antibody and complement activation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68: 2584–88.Google Scholar
  64. Levaditi, C. & Mcintosh, J. 1909. Le mécanisme de la création des varietés de trypanosomes resistants aux anticorps. Compt. R. Soc. Biol. 66: 49–51.Google Scholar
  65. Losos, G.J. & Dcede, B.O. 1972. Review of pathology of diseases in domestic and laboratory animals, caused by Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax, T. brucei, T. rhodesiense, and T. gambiense. Vet. Pathol. Suppl. 9: 71.Google Scholar
  66. Luckins, A.G. 1972. Effects of x-irradiation and cortisone treatment of albino rats on infections with brucei-complex trypanosomes. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66: 130–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lumsden, W.H.R. 1970. Biological aspects of trypanosomiasis research, 1965: a retrospect, 1969. Adv. Parasitol. 8: 227–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lumsden, W.H.R. 1972a. Immune response to hemoprotozoa. In Immunity to Animal Parasites. Soulsby, E.J.L., Ed.: 287–289. Academic Press, Inc. New York, N.Y.Google Scholar
  69. Lumsden, W.H.R. 1972b. Trypanosomiasis. Brit. Med. Bull. 28: 3448.Google Scholar
  70. McDevitt, H.O. & Bodmer, W.F. 1974. HL-A, immune-response genes, and disease. Lancet 1: 1269–1275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. McNeillage, G.J.C. & Herbert, W.J. 1968. Infectivity and virulence of Trypanosoma (trypanozoon) brucei for mice. II. Comparison of closely related trypanosome antigenic types. J. Comp. Pathol. 78: 345–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McNeillage, G.J.C., Herbert, W.H. & Lumsden, W.H.R. 1969. Antigenic type of first relapse variants arising from a strain of Trypanosoma (trypanozoon) brucei Exp. Parasitol. 25: 1–7.Google Scholar
  73. Njogu, A.R. 1972. Purification of the 4S antigens of brucei subgroup trypano-somes. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66: 347–348.Google Scholar
  74. Njogu, A.R. 1974. The immunochemistry of the variable antigens of Trypanosoma brucei. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Parasitology. 2: 1094.Google Scholar
  75. Njogu, A.R., Itazi, O.K., Enyaru, J.C. & Abonga, L. 1974. Direct evidence that the 4S (surface) antigens are located on the outer surface of the Trypanosoma brucei subgroup cell membrane. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68: 147–148.Google Scholar
  76. Ormerod, W.E., Venkatesan, S. & Carpenter, R.G. 1974. The effect of immune inhibition on pleomorphism in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Parasitology 68: 355–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Osaki, H. 1959. Studies on the immunological variation in Trypanosoma gambiense (serotypes and the mode of relapse). Biken J. 2: 113–127.Google Scholar
  78. Osher, F.C. & Neal, W.C. 1975. Theories of antibody diversity: the great debate. Cell. Immunol. 17: 552–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Otieno, L.H. 1973. Effects of immunosuppressive agents on the course of Trypanosoma (trypanozoon) brucei infections in heat-stressed mice. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67: 856–869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rubio, N. 1974. Surface H-2 antigenic concentration requirement of somatic hybrid cells for IgM-mediated cytotoxicity. Nature (Lond.) 249: 461–463.Google Scholar
  81. Seed, J.R. 1972. Trypanosoma gambiense and T. equiperdum: characterization of variant specific antigens. Exp. Parasitol. 31: 98–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Seed, J.R. 1974. Antigens and antigenic variability of the African trypanosomes. J. Protozool. 21: 639–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Seed, J.R. and Gam, A.A. 1966. Passive immunity to experimental trypanosomiasis. J. Parasitol. 52: 1134–1140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Soltys, M.A. 1959. Immunity in trypanosomiasis. III. Sensitivity of antibody resistant strains to chemotherapeutic drugs. Parasitology 49: 143–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sommerville, J. 1970. Serotype expression in Paramecium. Adv. Microb. Physiol. 4: 131–178.Google Scholar
  86. Steiger, R. 1971. Some aspects of the surface coat formation in Trypanosoma brucei. Acta Trop. 28: 341–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Takayanagi, T. & Enriquez, G.L. 1973. Effects of the IgG and IgM immunoglobulins in Trypanosoma gambiense infections in mice. J. Parasitol. 59: 644–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Taylor, A.E.R. & Lanham, S.M. 1972. Partial purification of immunogenic (protective) antigens of Trypanosoma brucei brucei Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66: 345–346.Google Scholar
  89. Tomkins, G.M., Gelehrter, T.D., Granner, D., Martin, D., Jr., Samuels, H.H. & Thompson, E.B. 1969. Control of specific gene expression in higher organisms. Science 166: 1474–1480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Uilenberg, G. 1974. Summary of studies on the immunology of Trypanosoma congolense infection carried out at Maisons-Alfort (I.E.M.V.T.) France, 1970–1972. In Control Programmes for Trypanosomes and Their Vectors. Rev. Élevage Méd. Vét. Pays. Trop. Suppl.: 207–208.Google Scholar
  91. Uilenberg, G. & Giret, M. 1972. Etudes immunologiques sur les trypanosomes. 1. Existence d’un type antigenique de base chez une souche de Trypanosoma congolense Broden, 1904. Variation après transmission cyclique. Rev. Élevage Méd. Vét. Pays. Trop. 25: 37–52.Google Scholar
  92. Uilenberg, G. & Giret, M. 1973. Etudes immunologiques sur les trypanosomes. 3. Essais d’immunisation de moutons contre l’infection cyclique par Trypanosoma congolense. Rev. Élevage Méd. Vét. Pays. Trop. 26: 37–42.Google Scholar
  93. Uilenberg, G., Maillot, L. & Giret, M. 1973. Etudes immunologiques sur les trypanosomes. 2. Observations nouvelles sur le type antigenique de base d’une souche de Trypanosoma congolense. Rev. Élevage Méd. Vét. Pays Trop. 26: 27–36.Google Scholar
  94. Van Meirvenne, N., Janssens, P.G. & Magnus, E. 1975a. Antigenic variation in syringe-passaged populations of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei. I. Rationalization of the experimental approach. Ann. Soc. Beige Med. Trop. 55: 1–23.Google Scholar
  95. Van Meirvenne, N., Janssens, P.G., Magnus, E., Lumsden, W.H.R. & Herbert, W.J. 1975b. Antigenic variation in syringe-passaged populations of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei. II. Comparative studies on two antigenic type collections. Ann. Soc. Belge Med. Trop. 55: 25–30.Google Scholar
  96. Van Meirvenne, N., LeRay, D., Janssens, P.G. & Magnus, E. 1973. Immunogenic properties of common and variable antigens of T. brucei, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67: 274–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Vickerman, K. 1965. Polymorphism and mitochondrial activity in sleeping sickness trypanosomes. Nature (Lond.) 208: 762–766.Google Scholar
  98. Vickerman, K. 1969. On the surface coat and flagellar adhesion in trypanosomes. J. Cell Sci. 5: 163–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Vickerman, K. 1970. Ultrastructure of Trypanosoma and relation to function. In The African Trypanosomiases. Mulligan, H.W., Ed.: 60–66. Allen & Unwin. London, England.Google Scholar
  100. Vickerman, K. 1971. Morphological and physiological considerations of extra-cellular blood protozoans. In Ecology and Physiology of Protozoal Parasites. Fallis, A.M., Ed.: 58–89. University of Toronto Press. Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  101. Vickerman, K. 1974a. The ultrastructure of pathogenic flagellates. In Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis: 171–190. Ciba Foundation Symposium 20 (new series), Associated Scientific Publishers. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  102. Vickerman, K. 1974b. Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes. In Parasites in the Immunized Host: Mechanisms of Survival. Porter, R. & Knight, J., Eds.: 53–80. Ciba Foundation Symposium 25 (new series). Associated Scientific Publishers. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  103. Vickerman, K. & Evans, D.A. 1974. Studies on the ultrastructure and respiratory physiology of Trypanosoma vivax trypomastigote stages. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68: 145.Google Scholar
  104. Vickerman, K. & Luckins, A.G. 1969. Localization of variable antigens in the surface coat of Trypanosoma brucei using ferritin conjugated antibody. Nature (Lond.) 224: 1125–1126.Google Scholar
  105. Watkins, J.F. 1964. Observations on antigenic variation in a strain of Trypanosoma brucei growing in mice. J. Hyg. 62: 69–80.Google Scholar
  106. Wellde, B.T., Duxbury, R.E., Sadun, E.H., Langbehn, H.R., Lötzsch, R., Deindl, G. & Warui, G. 1973. Experimental infections with African trypanosomes. IV. Immunization of cattle with gamma-irradiated Trypanosoma rhodesiense. Exp. Parasitol. 34: 62–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Wellde, B.T., Schoenbechler, M.J., Diggs, C.L., Langbehn, H.R. & Sadun, E.H. 1975. Trypanosoma rhodesiense: variant specificity of immunity induced by irradiated parasites. Exp. Parasitol. 37: 125–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Wijers, D.J.B. 1959. Polymorphism in Trypanosoma gambiense and Trypanosoma rhodesiense, and the significance of the intermediate forms. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 53: 59–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Wilson, A.J. 1967. An immunological study of T. congolense group organisms on cyclical passage through G. morsitans. E. Afr. Trypanosomiasis Res. Organ. Annu. Rep. 1967: 21–22.Google Scholar
  110. Wilson, A.J. & Cunningham, M.P. 1972. Immunological aspects of bovine trypanosomiasis. I. Immune response of cattle to infection with Trypanosoma congolense and the antigenic variation of the infecting organisms. Exp. Parasitol. 32: 165–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wilson, A.J., Dar, F.K. & Paris, J. 1973. Serological studies on trypanosomiasis in East Africa. 3. Comparison of antigenic types of Trypanosoma congolense organisms isolated from wild flies. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 67: 313–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Wilson, A.J. & Grainge, E.B. 1967. Immunological relationship of Trypanosoma brucei subgroup isolates obtained from different areas of East Africa as judged by the agglutination test. East Africa Trypanosomiasis Res. Organ. Annu.Rep. 1967:20–21.Google Scholar
  113. Wright, K.A. & Hales, H. 1970. Cytochemistry of the pellicle of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei. J. Parasitol. 56: 671–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • John J. Doyle
    • 1
  1. 1.Research and Training CenterWorld Health Organization ImmunologyLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations