Part of the Functional Biology Series book series (FBS)


The biological success of an individual depends finally on that individual’s effectiveness at ‘mapping’ the energy and materials of its food into progeny (Figure 1.1). Reproduction is at the core of the adaptation of the individual to its environment. In gonochoristic organisms such as the sticklebacks, successful reproduction requires the cooperation of another animal so that the haploid gametes can be fertilised. Other individuals may also be seeking the co-operation of that sexual partner, so if partners are a relatively scarce resource, there may be competition for them. Much of the reproductive behaviour of sticklebacks can be interpreted in the context of competition for and the choice of sexual partners.


Breeding Season Parental Phase Gravid Female Territory Size Lawrence Estuary 
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Copyright information

© R.J. Wootton 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ZoologyThe University College of WalesAberystwythUK

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