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Spatial distribution of the sticklebacks has several components: the global distribution of the family, the global distributions of the individual genera and species, and the local distributions of individual populations. A related factor is the extent to which the spatial distribution of populations reflects migrations between different habitats and localities. At one extreme, the global patterns reflect the evolutionary and adaptational history of the family and its species, whereas, at the other end of the scale, local distributions depend on the behavioural choices made by individual fish during their ontogeny. These behavioural choices are constrained by the physiological capacity of the fish to adapt to new environmental factors (Chapter 5).
KeywordsFresh Water Global Distribution Chloride Cell Prolactin Cell Lawrence Estuary
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