Advertisement

Insecticide residues in California citrus fruits and products

  • Francis A. Gunther
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 28)

Abstract

Prior to about 1945 it was not realized that spray and dust deposits of most organic insecticidal1 chemicals penetrated, in the field, into subsurface regions of sprayed citrus fruits, even though they were generally nonsystemic in action, as with some of the DN compounds and rotenone. Also, emphasis on “residues” (deposits) prior to this same time was on correlations with pest-control efficacy rather than on safe consumption of the treated commodity, so that initial deposits and aged deposits were most often obtained as weight of insecticide per unit areas of leaf (foliage) tissue2 rather than on and in mature fruits, as with sulfur, lime-sulfur, and lead arsenate, because insect populations were usually evaluated on leaves or twigs rather than on fruits. In connection with the field performance of DDT and other new insecticides against insects and mites in citriculture, however, it was realized shortly after 1940 that the slow disappearance or attenuation from leaves of these (DDT) surface deposits and effective residues from organic pesticides signified at least partial penetration into subsurface tissues (Gunther 1946 and Gunther et al. 1946).

Keywords

Pesticide Residue Citrus Fruit Methyl Parathion Pesticide Chemical Initial Deposit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, C. A., D. MacDougall, J. W. Kesterson, R. Hendrickson, and R. F. Brooks: Effects of processing on Guthion residues in oranges and orange products. J. Agr. Food Chem. 11, 422 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous: Reduced tolerance for DDT. Federal Register, Feb. 19 (1968 a).Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous: Italian pesticide regulation for fruits and vegetables. Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, No. 28, pp. 634–639, Feb. 1 (1968 b).Google Scholar
  4. Atkins, E. L., R. C. Blinn, T. R. Fukuto, and F. A. Gunther: Residues on oranges resulting from the use of DDT, parathion, Phosdrin, and TDE for the control of orangeworms. J. Econ. Entomol. 54, 455 (1961).Google Scholar
  5. Balson, E. W.: Vapor-pressure measurement. III. An effusion manometer sensitive to 5 × 10-6 millimeters of mercury: Vapor pressures of DDT and other slightly volatile substances. Trans. Faraday Soc. 43, 48 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes, M. M., G. E. Carman, W. H. Ewart, and F. A. Gunther: Fruit surface residues of DDT and parathion at harvest. Adv. Chem. Series 1, 112 (1950).Google Scholar
  7. Benyon, K. I., and K. E. Elgar: The analysis for residues of chlorinated insecticides and acaricides. Analyst 91, 143 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blinn, R. C., G. E. Carman, W. H. Ewart, and F. A. Gunther: Residual behavior of various insecticides on and in lemons and oranges. J. Econ. Entomol. 52, 42 (1959 a).Google Scholar
  9. Blinn, R. C., R. W. Dorner, J. H. Barkley, L. R. Jeppson, F. A. Gunther, and C. C. Cassil: Locale of aged Tedion residues on citrus fruits. J. Econ. Entomol. 52, 723 (1959 b).Google Scholar
  10. Blinn, R. C., R. W. Dorner, F. A. Gunther, and M. J. Kolbezen: Microdetermination of the acaricide ethyl p,p′-dichlorobenzilate (Chlorobenzilate). J. Agr. Food Chem. 2, 1080 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyce, A. M.: Personal communication (1946).Google Scholar
  12. Bright, N. F. H., J. C. Cuthill, and N. H. Woodbury: Vapor pressure of parathion and related compounds. J. Sci. Food Agr. 1, 344 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burke, J. A.: Report on chlorinated insecticides and miticides. J. Assoc. Official Anal. Chemists 50, 575 (1967).Google Scholar
  14. Carman, G. E., W. H. Ewart, M. M. Barnes, and F. A. Gunther: Absorption of DDT and parathion by fruits. Adv. Chem. Series 1, 128 (1950).Google Scholar
  15. Carman, G. E., F. A. Gunther, R. C. Blinn, and R. D. Garmus: The physical fate of parathion applied to citrus. J. Econ. Entomol. 45, 767 (1952).Google Scholar
  16. Cook, J. W.: Persistence of residues in foods. In C. O. Chichester (ed.): Research in pesticides, pp. 205–212. New York: Academic Press (1965).Google Scholar
  17. Crafts, A. S., and C. L. Foy: The chemical and physical nature of plant surfaces in relation to the use of pesticides and to their residues. Residue Reviews 1, 112 (1962).Google Scholar
  18. de Vos, R. H.: Sampling and analysis for biphenyl residues in citrus fruit. Proc. Internat. Citrus Symposium, Riverside, Calif., Mar. 16–26 (1968). In press.Google Scholar
  19. Division of Agricultural Sciences of the University of California: 1968/1969 Treatment guide for California citrus crops. California Agricultural Experiment Station Extension Service, Berkeley, Calif. (1968/1969).Google Scholar
  20. Ebeling, W.: Analysis of the basic processes involved in the deposition, degradation, persistence, and effectiveness of pesticides. Residue Reviews 3, 35 (1963).Google Scholar
  21. Ewart, W. H., H. S. Elmer, and F. A. Gunther: Parathion treatments for the control of citricola scale on citrus in California. J. Econ. Entomol. 44, 598 (1951).Google Scholar
  22. Fahey, J. E.: Digest of the literature, 1925 through 1952, relating to sampling of crops for spray residue analyses. U. S. Department of Agriculture Mimeo., 59 pp. (1953).Google Scholar
  23. Forcier, G. A., and J. W. Olver: Simplified purification of acetonitrile for electroanalytical applications. Anal. Chem. 37, 1447 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frear, D. E. H.: Pesticide residue investigations on raw agricultural commodities. Pennsylvania State University Agr. Expt. Station Bull. 703 (1963).Google Scholar
  25. Garber, M. J.: Statistical evaluation of results and sampling procedures. In G. Zweig (ed.): Analytical methods for pesticides, plant growth regulators, and food additives, Vol. 1, pp. 491–530. New York: Academic Press (1963).Google Scholar
  26. Gaston, L. K., J. H. Barkely, D. E. Ott, F. E. Hearth, L. R. Jeppson, and F. A. Gunther: Persistence of Morestan residues on and in citrus fruits by five complementary analytical methods. J. Agr. Food Chem., in press (1969).Google Scholar
  27. Gunther, F. A.: Aspects of the chemistry of DDT. J. Chem. Ed. 22, 238 and 279 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gunther, F. A.: Chemical studies of DDT as an insecticide. 30th Ann. Meeting, Pacific Slope Branch Amer. Assoc. Econ. Entomol., Riverside, Calif., June 26–28 (1946).Google Scholar
  29. Gunther, F. A.: Unpublished data (1950).Google Scholar
  30. Gunther, F. A.: Instrumentation in pesticide residue determinations. Adv. Pest Control Research 5, 191 (1962).Google Scholar
  31. Gunther, F. A.: Advances in analytical detection of pesticides. In: Scientific aspects of pest control, pp. 276–302. Nat. Acad. Sci.-Nat. Research Council, Washington, D.C., Publ. No. 1402 (1966).Google Scholar
  32. Gunther, F. A.: Current status of pesticide residue methodology. In: Biological effects of pesticides in mammalian systems. N.Y. Acad. Sci., New York City, in press (1968 a).Google Scholar
  33. Gunther, F. A.: Unpublished data (1968 b).Google Scholar
  34. Gunther, F. A., and R. C. Blinn: Analysis of insecticides and acaricides. New York: Interscience (1955).Google Scholar
  35. Gunther, F. A., and R. C. Blinn: Persistng insecticide residues in plant materials. Ann. Review Entomol. 1, 167 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gunther, F. A., and R. C. Blinn: Ultraviolet spectrophotometric microdetermination of the acaricide 4,4′-dichloro-alpha-(trichloromethyl)-benzhydrol (FW-293). J. Agr. Food Chem. 5, 517 (1957 a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gunther, F. A., and F. Buzzetti: Occurrence, isolation, and identification of polynuclear hydrocarbons as residues. Residue Reviews 9, 90 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gunther, F. A., and L. R. Jeppson: Ovotran residues in citrus. University of California Citrus Expt. Sta. Mimeo., 20 pp., Nov. 15 (1951).Google Scholar
  39. Gunther, F. A., and L. R. Jeppson: Residues of p-chlorophenyl-p-chlorobenzenesulfonate (Compound K-6451) on and in lemons and oranges. J. Econ. Entomol. 47, 1027 (1954).Google Scholar
  40. Gunther, F. A., and W. E. Westlake: Studies of organic insecticide residues in California citrus fruits and products. Proc. Internat. Citrus Symposium, Riverside, Calif., Mar. 16–26 (1968). In press.Google Scholar
  41. Gunther, F. A., and M. M. Barnes, and G. E. Carman: Removal of DDT and parathion residues from apples, pears, lemons, and oranges. Adv. Chem. Ser. 1, 137 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gunther, F. A., J. H. Barkley, and W. H. Ewart: Harvest residues of apparent dieldrin in peel and juice of navel oranges. J. Econ. Entomol. 47, 1033 (1954).Google Scholar
  43. Gunther, F. A., R. C. Blinn, and J. H. Barkley: Infrared procedure for quantitative determination of residues of 2,4,4′,5-tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfone (Tedion) on and in citrus fruit peel. J. Agr. Food Chem. 7, 104 (1959 a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gunther, F. A., R. C. Blinn, and G. E. Carman: Residues of Sevin on and in lemons and oranges. J. Agr. Food Chem. 10, 222 (1962 a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gunther, F. A., R. C. Blinn, and G. E. Carman: Residues of ethion on and in lemons and oranges as determined by an infrared spectrophotometric procedure. J. Agr. Food Chem. 10, 224 (1962 b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gunther, F. A., R. C. Blinn, L. R. Jeppson, J. H. Barkley, G. J. Frisone, and R. D. Garmus: Field persistence of the acaricide 4,4′-dichloro-alpha-(trichloromethyl)-benz-hydrol (FW-293) on and in mature lemons and oranges. J. Agr. Food Chem. 5, 595 (1957 b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gunther, F. A., R. C. Blinn, M. J. Kolbezen, J. H. Barkley, W. D. Harris, and H. S. Simon: Microestimation of 2-(p-tert-butylphenoxy)isopropyl-2-chloroethyl sulfite residues. Anal. Chem. 23, 1835 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gunther, F. A., F. Buzzetti, and W. E. Westlake: Residue behavior of polynuclear hydrocarbons on and in oranges. Residue Reviews 17, 81 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gunther, F. A., G. E. Carman, R. C. Blinn, and J. H. Barkley: Persistence of residues of Guthion on and in mature lemons and oranges and in laboratory-processed citrus “pulp” cattle feed. J. Agr. Food Chem. 11, 424 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gunther, F. A., G. E. Carman, L. R. Jeppson, J. H. Barkley, R. C. Blinn, and G. G. Patchett: Residual behavior of S-(p-chlorophenylthio) methyl O,O-diethyl phosphoro-dithioate (Trithion) on and in mature lemons and oranges, J. Agr. Food Chem. 7, 28 (1959 b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gunther, F. A., W. H. Ewart, J. H. Barkley, and R. T. Murphy: Persistence of residues of dimethoate on and in mature Valencia oranges and in laboratory-processed citrus pulp cattle feed. J. Agr. Food Chem. 13, 548 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gunther, F. A., W. H. Ewart, R. C. Blinn, H. S. Elmer, and G. B. Wacker: Field persistence comparisons of residues of the insecticide, Diazinon, in lemons and Valencia oranges and effects on juice flavor. J. Agr. Food Chem. 6, 521 (1958 a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gunther, F. A., J. W. Hylin, and R. E. Spenger: Nature of chlorine interferences in total halogen methods of analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in plants. J. Agr. Food Chem. 14, 515 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gunther, F. A., L. R. Jeppson, J. H. Barkley, L. M. Elliott, R. C. Blinn, and C. L. Dunn: Persistence of residues of 2,3-p-dioxanedithiol S,S-bis(O,O-diethyl phosphorodithioate) as an acaricide on and in mature lemons and oranges. J. Agr. Food Chem. 6, 210 (1958 b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gunther, F. A., L. R. Jeppson, and G. B. Wacker: Persistence of chlorobenzilate residues in mature lemon fruits. J. Econ. Entomol. 48, 372 (1955).Google Scholar
  56. Gunther, F. A., D. L. Lindgren, M. I. Elliot, and J. P. La Due: Persistence of certain DDT deposits under field conditions. J. Econ. Entomol. 39, 624 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gunther, F. A., W. E. Westlake, and P. S. Jaglan: Reported solubilities of 738 pesticide chemicals in water. Residue Reviews 20, 1 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Harden, L. J., and C. T. Sarten: Comparison of five extraction procedures for the recovery of DDT residues in field-treated collards. J. Assoc. Official Agr. Chemists 45, 988 (1962).Google Scholar
  59. Harris, T. H., and J. G. Cummings: Enforcement of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act in the United States. Residue Reviews 6, 104 (1964).Google Scholar
  60. Hazleton Laboratories, Inc.: Final report: Market research project for 1966–1967. Dec. 8 (1967).Google Scholar
  61. Hazleton Laboratories, Inc.: Progress report French residue project. Mar. 13 (1968).Google Scholar
  62. Hazleton, L. W.: Sampling and analysis for various pesticides in single samples of citrus fruits. Proc. Internat. Citrus Symposium, Riverside, Calif., Mar. 16–26 (1968). In press.Google Scholar
  63. Hearth, F. E., D. E. Ott, and F. A. Gunther: Oscillopolarographic analysis of Morestan residues in Valencia orange rind following thin-layer chromatography. J. Assoc. Official Anal. Chemists 49, 774 (1966).Google Scholar
  64. Hindin, E.: Residue analyses in water resources. In G. Zweig (ed.): Analytical methods for pesticides, plant growth regulators, and food additives, vol. V, p. 90. New York: Academic Press (1967).Google Scholar
  65. Hoskins, W. M.: Methods for expressing the persistence of insecticidal residues on plants. Final report, Calif. contributing project to U.S. Department of Agriculture regional project W-45 (1961).Google Scholar
  66. Hull, H. M.: A tabular summary of research dealing with translocation of foliar-applied herbicides and selected growth regulators. Weeds 8, 214 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. IsHii, A.: Personal communication (Mar. 30, 1968).Google Scholar
  68. Jasinski, R. J., and S. Kirkland: Analysis and distillation of propylene carbonate. Anal. Chem. 39, 1663 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jeppson, L. R., L. M. Elliott, and F. A. Gunther: Persistence of residues of Neotran on and in mature lemons and oranges. J. Econ. Entomol. 51, 914 (1958).Google Scholar
  70. Jeppson, L. R., F. A. Gunther, and J. H. Barkley. Manuscript in preparation (1968).Google Scholar
  71. Klein, A. K.: Report on extraction procedures for chloro-organic pesticides. J. Assoc. Official Agr. Chemists 41, 551 (1958).Google Scholar
  72. Klein, A. K.: Determination of DDT in leafy vegetables. J. Assoc. Official Agr. Chemists 43, 703 (1960).Google Scholar
  73. Klein, A. K., E. P. Laug, and J. D. Sheehan, Jr.: Extraction procedures for chloro-organic insecticides. J. Assoc. Official Agr. Chemists 42, 539 (1959).Google Scholar
  74. Linskens, H. F., W. Heinen, and A. L. Stoffers: Cutícula of leaves and the residue problem. Residue Reviews 8, 136 (1965).Google Scholar
  75. Lykken, L.: Important considerations in collecting and preparing crop samples for residue analysis. Residue Reviews 3, 19 (1963).Google Scholar
  76. Melnikov, N. N.: Personal communication (Aug. 8, 1968).Google Scholar
  77. Menzie, C. M.: Metabolism of pesticides. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Washington, D.C., Special Sci. Rep’t. Wildlife No. 96, May (1966).Google Scholar
  78. Mestres, R.: Pesticides in citrus fruits on the French market. Proc. Internat. Citrus Symposium, Riverside, Calif., Mar. 16–26 (1968). In press.Google Scholar
  79. Metcalf, R. L., and R. B. March: Behavior of octamethyl pyrophosphoramide in in citrus plants. J. Econ. Entomol. 45, 988 (1952).Google Scholar
  80. Metcalf, R. L., T. R. Fukuto, and R. B. March: Plant metabolism of Dithio-Systox and Thimet. J. Econ. Entomol. 50, 338 (1957).Google Scholar
  81. Metcalf, R. L., R. B. March, and T. R. Fukuto: Study of systemic insecticides: Location and amount of residue in plant tissues determined with aid of radio-phosphorus tracers. Calif. Agr. 8(6), 5 (1954 a).Google Scholar
  82. Metcalf, R. L., R. B. March, and T. R. Fukuto, and M. G. Maxon: The behavior of Systox isomers in bean and citrus plants. J. Econ. Entomol. 47, 1045 (1954 b).Google Scholar
  83. Metcalf, R. L., R. B. March, and T. R. Fukuto, and M. G. Maxon: The nature and significance of Systox residues in plant materials. J. Econ. Entomol. 48, 364 (1955).Google Scholar
  84. Mills, P. A.: Detection and semiquantitative estimation of chlorinated organic pesticide residues in food by paper chromatography. J. Assoc. Official Agr. Chemists 42, 734 (1959).Google Scholar
  85. Mills, P. A.: Paragraph 221 (A). In: Pesticide analytical manual, Vol. I. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. (1965).Google Scholar
  86. Mumma, R. O., W. B. Wheeler, D. E. H. Frear, and R. H. Hamilton: Dieldrin: Extraction of accumulations by root uptake. Science 152, 530 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Murphy, R. T., L. K. Gaston, and F. A. Gunther: Colorimetric analytical method for Bidrin residues in alfalfa, celery, lemon peel, lettuce, orange peel, potatoes, string beans, and tomatoes. J. Agr. Food Chem. 13, 242 (1965 a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Murphy, R. T., J. R. O’Neal, W. H. Ewart, and F. A. Gunther: Persistence of Bidrin residues on and in mature oranges and in laboratory-processed citrus pulp cattle feed. J. Agr. Food Chem. 13, 550 (1965 b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rajzman, A.: Les résidus de biphényle dans les agrumes. Residue Reviews 8, 1 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Samuel, B. L., and H. K. Hodges: Screening methods for organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides in foods and feeds. Residue Reviews 17, 35 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Schnorbus, R. R., and W. F. Phillips: New extraction system for residue analysis. J. Agr. Food Chem. 15, 661 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sinclair, W. B.: The orange: Its biochemistry and physiology. See especially chapter 9 by J. G. Kirchner, pp. 265 ff. Berkeley: University of California Press (1961).Google Scholar
  93. Souci, S. W.: Biphenyl and o-phenylphenol as postharvest fungistats in citrus fruits and citrus products. Proc. Internat. Citrus Symposium, Riverside, Calif., Mar. 16–26 (1968). In press.Google Scholar
  94. Souci, S. W., and G. Maier-Haarländer: Über den Diphenylgehalt und -geruch von Citrusfruchten und Citruserzeugnissen sowie den Übergang von Diphenyl auf unbehandelte Fruchte bei der Lagerung. Residue Reviews 16, 103 (1966).Google Scholar
  95. Stobwasser, H., B. Rademacher, and E. Lange: Einfluss von Nacherntefaktoren auf die Rückstände von Pflanzenschutzmitteln in Obst, Gemüse und einigen Sonderkulturen. Residue Reviews 22, 45 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Storherr, R. W., and R. R. Watts: Collaborative study of the ethyl acetate extraction, sweep co-distillation cleanup, and GLC determination, using six parent organophosphate pesticides. J. Assoc. Official Anal. Chemists 51, 662 (1968).Google Scholar
  97. Swisher, H. E.: Personal communications (Mar. and Sept. 1968).Google Scholar
  98. Thornburg, W. W.: Extraction and cleanup procedures. In G. Zweig (ed.): Analytical methods for pesticides, plant growth regulators, and food additives, Vol. I, pp. 87–108. New York: Academic Press (1963).Google Scholar
  99. Turrell, F. M.: Tables of surfaces and volumes of spheres and of prolate and oblate spheroids and spheroidal coefficients. Berkeley: University of California Press (1946).Google Scholar
  100. van Middelem, C. H.: Principles of residue analysis. In G. Zweig (ed.): Analytical methods for pesticides, plant growth regulators, and food additives, Vol. I, pp. 25–46. New York: Academic Press (1963).Google Scholar
  101. van Middelem, C. H.: Review of pesticides in Florida citrus and products. Proc. Internat. Citrus Symposium, Riverside, Calif., Mar. 16–26 (1968). In press.Google Scholar
  102. Wedding, R. T.: Some physiological aspects of the use of systemic insecticides. J. Agr. Food Chem. 1, 832 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Westlake, W. E., and F. A. Gunther: Occurrence and mode of introduction of pesticides in the environment. Adv. Chem. Series 60, 120 (1966).Google Scholar
  104. Westlake, W. E., and F. A. Gunther: Advances in gas chromatographic detectors illustrated from applications to pesticide residue evaluations. Residue Reviews 18, 176 (1967).Google Scholar
  105. Wheeler, W. B., and D. E. H. Frear: Extraction of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides from plant materials. Residue Reviews 16, 86 (1966).Google Scholar
  106. Williams, E. F.: Properties of O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate and O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Ind. Eng. Chem. 43, 950 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wilson, C. W.: Personal communication (1950).Google Scholar
  108. Wisniewski, J. V.: Pesticide residues in marmalades and preserves. F & M Facts and Methods for Scientific Research 6(4), 3 (1965).Google Scholar
  109. Zweig, G. (ed.): Analytical methods for pesticides, plant growth regulators, and food additives, Vols. I to V. New York: Academic Press (1963–1967).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francis A. Gunther
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations