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Somatostatin pp 89-107 | Cite as

Somatostatin-28 [1–12] — Like Peptides

  • R. Benoit
  • P. Bohlen
  • N. Ling
  • F. Esch
  • A. Baird
  • S. Y. Ying
  • W. B. Wehrenberg
  • R. Guillemin
  • J. H. Morrison
  • C. Bakhit
  • L. Koda
  • F. E. Bloom
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 188)

Abstract

The search for a peptide corresponding to the NH2-terminus of somatostatin-28 (SS-28) in tissues has led to the isolation and characterization of somatostatin-28[1–12] from pancreas and hypothalamus. Somatostatin-28[1–12]-like immunoreactivity [SS-28[1–12]-LI] is widely distributed throughout the central nervous sytem and the digestive system of rodents and primates, reaching levels comparable to those of somatostatin-14 (SS-14). Antibodies directed against the C-terminal end of the dodecapeptide are more specific and constitute excellent markers for the “prosomatostatin” system in mammalian tissues. In rat brain, SS-28[1–12]-LI material is highly concentrated in nerve fibres and terminals, especially in the median eminence, layer I of neocortex, the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the striatum. Additionally, immunoreactivity is observed in large multipolar or occasionally pyramidal-like neurons of the neocortex. SS-28[1–12] is secreted from hypothalamus and amygdala by a calcium dependent mechanism. No biological role is presently known for the dodecapeptide.

Two other peptides of Mr = 8000 (8K) and Mr = 5000 (5K) which contain SS-28[1–12] at their carboxy-termini are present in acid extracts from rat pancreas, brain and spinal cord. These two peptides were isolated from an acid extract of rat brains using ion-exchange chromatography, gel permeation chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Results from amino acid analysis and partial sequencing were compared to the sequence of the cDNA encoding rat pre-prosoma-tostatin (prepro-SS) and revealed that the 8K peptide is a 76 amino acid molecule corresponding to prepro-SS[25–100] and that the 5K peptide, which contains 44 amino acids, corresponds to prepro-SS [57–100]. The 5K peptide was generated after cleavage of a Leu-Leu bond at position 56–57 of prepro-SS. The four most predominant peptides of the “prosomatostatin system” presently characterized are: SS-14, SS-28[1–12], SS-28 and prepro-SS[25–100]. Studies on pooled perfusates from rat hypothalamic tissue show that prepro-SS [25–100] is released with SS-28[1–12] in vitro and accounts for 22% of the total SS-28[1–12]-like immunoreactive material released during depolarization. The 5K peptide is apparently not secreted.

The presence of prepro-SS[25–100] in brain implies that, first, prosomatostatin can serve as an immediate precursor for SS-14 without going through SS-28 as an intermediate step and second, other peptides could conceivably be derived from the cryptic portion of the precursor.

Keywords

Median Eminence Immunoreactive Material Antibody Population Outer Molecular Layer Immune Plasma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Benoit
    • 1
  • P. Bohlen
    • 1
  • N. Ling
    • 1
  • F. Esch
    • 1
  • A. Baird
    • 1
  • S. Y. Ying
    • 1
  • W. B. Wehrenberg
    • 1
  • R. Guillemin
    • 1
  • J. H. Morrison
    • 2
  • C. Bakhit
    • 2
  • L. Koda
    • 2
  • F. E. Bloom
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratories for NeuroendocrinologyUSA
  2. 2.A.V. Davis Center for Behavioral NeurobiologyThe Salk InstituteSan DiegoUSA

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