Advertisement

Somatostatin pp 183-200 | Cite as

Somatostatin Secretion from the Hypothalamus

  • Robert A. Peterfreund
  • Wylie W. Vale
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 188)

Abstract

Comprehensive understanding of the physiologic role of somatostatin (SS) encompasses the question of the control of SS itself. Thus the biosynthesis, storage, secretion and degradation of the peptide became topics for investigation. This chapter will focus on secretion of SS from the hypothalamus, including a discussion of experimental systems and a review of data concerning the characterization and regulation of SS secretion.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Intact Animal Median Eminence Disperse Cell Culture Brain Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Itoh M 1979 Immunoreactive somatostatin in the hypothalamus and other regions of the rat brain: effects of insulin, glucose, alpha-or beta blocker and L-dopa. Endocrinol Jpn 26: 41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berelowitz M, Maeda K, Harris S, Frohman LA 1980 The effect of alterations in the pituitary-thyroid axis on hypothalamic content and in vitro release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity. Endocrinology 107: 24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berelowitz M, Firestone SL, Frohman LA 1981 Effects of growth hormone excess and deficiency on hypothalamic somatostatin content and release and on tissue somatostatin distribution. Endocrinology 109: 714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Terry L, Crowley W 1980 The effect of exercise stress on somatostatin concentrations in discrete brain nuclei. Brain Res 197: 543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Walker P, Dussault JH 1980 Hypothalamic sornatostatin and pituitary and serum growth hormone concentrations during postnatal development in rats exposed chronically to propylthiouracil or a low iodine diet. J Develop Physiol 2: 111.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hoffman D, Baker B 1977 Effect of treatment with growth hormone on somatostatin in the median eminence of hypophysectomized rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 156: 265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kanatsuka A, Makino H, Matsushima Y, Osegawa M, Yamamoto M, Kumagai A 1979 Effect of hypophysectomy and growth hormone administration on sornatostatin content in the rat hypothalamus. Neuroendocrinology 29: 186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Takahara J, Yunoki S, Hasogi H, Yahushiji W, Kageyama J, Ofuji T 1980 Concomitant increases in serum growth hormone and hypothalamic somatostatin in rats after injection of y-aminobutyric acid, aminooxyacetic acid or y-hydroxybutyric acid. Endocrinology 106: 343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eden S, Ericson E, Martin JB, Modigh K 1981 Evidence for a growth hormone releasing factor mediating alpha adrenergic influence on growth hormone secretion in the rat. Neuro-endocrinology 33: 24.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Willoughby JO, Kablar S, Jervas PM, Menodue MF, Oliver JR 1983 Evidence that the regulation of growth hormone secretion is mediated predominantly by a growth hormone releasing factor. Neuroendocrinology 36: 358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Willoughby JO, Martin JB 1973 Pulsatile growth hormone secretion: inhibitory role of medial preoptic area. Brain Res 143: 240.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Willoughby J, Terry L, Brazeau P, Martin JB 1977 Pulsatile growth hormone, prolactin and thyrotropin secretion in rats with hypothalamic deafferentation. Brain Res 127: 137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Critchlow V, Abe S, Urman S, Vale W 1981 Effects of lesions of the periventricular nucleus of the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus on growth hormone and thyrotropin secretion and brain sornatostatin. Brain Res 222: 267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Abe H, Kato Y, Chiba T, Taminoto T, Fujita T 1973 Plasma immunoreactive somatostatin levels in rat hypophyseal portal blood: effect of glucagon administration. Life Sci 23: 1647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chihara K, Arimura A, Kubli Gorfias C, Schally A 1979 Enhancement of immunoreactive somatostatin release into hypophyseal portal blood by electrical stimulation of the preoptic area in the rat. Endocrinology 105: 1416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chihara K, Arimura A, Schally AV 1979 Effect of intraventricular injection of dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine on immunoreactive somatostatin release into rat hypophyseal portal blood. Endocrinology 104: 1656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chihara K, Minamitani N, Kaji H, Arimura A, Fujita T 1981 Intraventricularly injected growth hormone stimulates somatostatin release into rat hypophyseal portal blood. Endocrinology 109: 2279.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gilling P, Giraud P, Conte-Devalx B, Jaquet P, Codaccioni JL, Oliver C 1979 Immunoreactive somatostatin in rat hypophyseal portal blood. Endocrinology 104: 1407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Millar RP, Sherwood WJ, Wegener I, Fink G 1983 Somatostatin-28 is a hormonally active peptide secreted into hypophysal portal blood. Brain Res 260: 334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kasting NW, Martin JB, Arnold MA 1981 Pulsatile somatostatin release from the median eminence of the unanesthetized rat and its relationship to plasma growth hormone levels. Endocrinology 109: 1739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vale W, Vaughan J, Yamamoto G, Spiess J, Rivier J 1983 Effects of synthetic human pancreatic (tumor) GH releasing factor and somatostatin, triiodothyronine and dexamethasone on GH secretion in vitro. Endocrinology 112: 1553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saito H, Ogawa T, Ishimaru K, Oshima I, Saito S 1979 Effect of pentobarbital and urethane on the release of hypothalamic somatostatin and pituitary growth hormone. Horm Metab Res 11: 550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bennet G, Edwardson J, Marcano de Cotte D, Berelowitz U, Pimstone B, Kronheim S 1979 Release of somatostatin from rat brain synaptosomes. J Neurochem 32: 1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Epelbaum J, Brazeau P, Tsang D, Brawer J, Martin JB 1977 Sub-cellular distribution of radioimmunoassayable somatostatin in brain. Brain Res 126: 309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Berelowitz M, Dudlak D, Frohman LA 1982 Release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity from incubated rat hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. J Clin Invest 69: 1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Berelowitz M, Szabo M, Frohman LA, Firestone L, Chu R, Hintz RL 1981 Somatomedin-C mediates growth hormone negative feedback by effects on both hypothalamus and pituitary. Science 212: 1279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Negro-Vilar A, Ojeda SR, Arimura A, McCann SM 1978 Dopamine and norepinephrine stimulate somatostatin release by median eminence fragments in vitro. Life Sci 23: 1493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ojeda S, Negro-Vilar A, Arimura A, McCann S 1980 On the hypothalamic mechanism by which prostaglandin E2 stimulates growth hormone release. Neuroendocrinology 31: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maeda L, Frohman LA 1980 Release of somatostatin and thyrotropin releasing hormone from rat hypothalamic fragments in vitro. Endocrinology 106: 1837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Richardson SB, Hollander CS, D’Eletto R, Greenleaf PW, Thaw C 1980 Acetylcholine inhibits the release of somatostatin from rat hypothalamus in vitro. Endocrinology 107: 122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Richardson SB, Hollander C, Prasad J, Hirooka Y 1981 Somatostatin release from rat hypothalamus in vitro - Effects of melatonin and serotonin. Endocrinology 109: 602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sheppard MC, Kronheim S, Pimstone BL 1978 Stimulation by growth hormone of somatostatin release from the rat hypothalamus in vitro. Clin Endocrinol 9: 583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sheppard MC, Kronheim S, Pimstone BL 1978 Effect of substance P, neurotensin and the enkephalins on soraatostatin release from the rat hypothalamus in vitro. J Neurochem 32: 647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shimatsu A, Kato Y, Matsushito M, Katakami H, Yanaihara N, Stimulation by glucagon and neurotensin of somatostatin release from perfused rat hypothalamus. Program of the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, 1981 (Abstract 198).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shimatsu A, Kato Y, Matsushita N, Katakami H, Yanaihara N, Imura H 1982 Effects of glucagon, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on somatostatin release from perfused rat hypothalamus. Endocrinology 11: 2113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zingg H, Patel Y 1979 Somatostatin precursors: evidence for presence in and release from rat median eminence and neurohypophysis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 90: 466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ensinck JW, Laschansky EC, Kanter R, Fujimoto W, Koerker D, Goodner C 1978 Somatostatin biosynthesis and release in the hypothalamus and pancreas of the rat. Metabolism 27: 1207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Iversen LL, Iversen SD, Bloom F, Douglas C, Brown M, Vale W 1978 Calcium dependent release of somatostatin and neurotensin from rat brain in vitro. Nature 273: 161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Denizeau F, Dube D, Antakly T, Lemay A, Parent A, Pelletier G, Labrie F 1981 Attempts to demonstrate peptide localization and secretion in primary cultures of fetal rat hypothalamus. Neuroendocrinology 32: 96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gamse R, Vaccaro D, Gamse G, Dipace M, Fox TO, Leeman SE 1980 Release of immunoreactive somatostatin from hypothalamic cells in culture, inhibition by gamma aminobutyric acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 77: 5552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Peterfreund RA, Vale WW 1982 High molecular weight somatostatin secretion from cultured rat brain cells. Brain Res 239: 463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richardson SB, Greenleaf P, Hollander CS 1983 Somatostatin release from dispersed hypothalamic cells - effects of membrane depolarization, calcium and glucose deprivation. Brain Res 266: 75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Richardson SB, Nguyen T, Hollander CS 1983 Dopamine stimulates somatostatin release from perfused hypothalamic cells. Amer J Physiol 244: E560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reichlin S 1983 Somatostatin. In: Krieger DT, Brownstein M, Martin JB (eds) Brain Peptides. John Wiley and Sons, New York, p 711.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Arimura A, Fishback JB 1981 Somatostatin: regulation of secretion. Neuroendocrinology 33: 246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shoemaker W, Peterfreund R, Vale W 1983 Methodological considerations in culturing peptidergic neurons. In: Conn PM (ed) Methods of Enzymology, Academic Press, New York, vol. 103: 347.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Esch F, Bohlen P, Ling N, Benoit R, Brazeau P, Guillemin R 1980 Primary structure of ovine hypothalamic SS-28 and SS-25. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 77: 6827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Spiess J, Vale W 1980 Multiple forms of somatostatin-like activity in rat hypothalamus. Biochemistry 19: 2861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Spiess J, Villarreal J, Vale W 1980 Immunological, enzymological and chemical characterization of a large somatostatinlike peptide. In: Koch G, Richter D (eds) Biosynthesis, Modification and Processing of Cellular and Viral Proteins. Academic Press, New York, p 79.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Spiess J, Villarreal J, Vale W 1981 Isolation and sequence analysis of somatostatin-like peptide from ovine hypothalamus. Biochemistry 20: 1982.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Peterfreund R, Vale W 1984 Picrotoxinin and phorbol-12-myristate13-acetate stimulate the secretion of multiple forms of somatostatin from cultured rat brain cells. J Neurochem 43: 126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Peterfreund RA, Vale WW 1983 Phorbol diesters stimulate somatostatin secretion from cultured brain cells. Endocrinology 113: 200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Peterfreund RA, Vale WW 1983 Muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of somatostatin secretion from long-term dispersed cell cultures of fetal rat hypothalamus: inhibition by yaminobutyric acid and serotonin. Endocrinology 112: 526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lumpkin ice, Negro-Vilar A, McCann SM 1981 Paradoxical elevation of growth hormone by intraventricular somatostatin: possible ultrashort-loop feedback. Science 211: 1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ipp E, Rivier J, Dobbs RE, Brown M, Vale W, Unger RH 1979 Somatostatin analogs inhibit somatostatin release. Endocrinolology 104: 1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Patel YC, Amherdt M, Orci L 1982 Quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin binding sites on islets. Science 217: 1155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Peterfreund R, Vale W 1984 Somatostatin analogs inhibit somatostatin secretion from cultured hypothalamus cells. Neuro-endocrinology, in press.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Langer SZ 1977 Presynaptic receptors and their role in the regulation of transmitter release. Br J Pharmacol 60: 481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Starke K 1977 Regulation of noradrenaline release by presynaptic receptor systems. Rev Physiol, Biochem & Pharmacol 77: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Peterfreund RA, VAle WW 1983 Ovine corticotropin-releasing factor stimulates somatostatin secretion from cultured brain cells. Endocrinology 112: 1275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rivier C, Vale W 1984 Corticotropin-releasing factor ( CRF) acts centrally to inhibit growth hormone secretion in the rat. Endocrinology 114: 2409.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Peterfreund
    • 1
  • Wylie W. Vale
    • 1
  1. 1.Peptide Biology LaboratoryThe Salk Institute for Biological StudiesSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations