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Vinyl dispersions are fluid suspensions of fine-particle-size polyvinyl chloride resins in liquid plasticizer/diluent systems. The viscosity of the plastisol may range from a pourable liquid to a paste, depending on the formulation. When heated to about 150 to 170°C (302–338°F), the dispersion turns into a homogeneous hot melt. When the hot melt is cooled to around room temperature (25°C, 77°F), it becomes a tough vinyl product.
Most vinyl applications that use dry blend or pelletized vinyl compounds require heavy melt processing equipment such as calenders, extruders, injection molders, blow molders, and so on. With vinyl dispersions the processor can use convenient liquid handling techniques such as casting, spraying, strand coating, rotomolding, dipping, and so forth.
The term “plastisol” is used to describe a vinyl dispersion that contains little or no volatile thinners or diluents (Fig. 16–1). Plastisols range in viscosity from water-thin liquid to a heavy paste with a consistency of mayonnaise. The ingredients generally include PVC resins, plasticizers, stabilizers, fillers, and pigments. When no volatile thinners are included, the plastisol is considered as high solids (98–99%). There is always some evaporation of plasticizers during the curing cycle.
It is convenient in some instances to extend the liquid phase of a dispersion with volatile dispersants or thinners, which are removed during fusion. The term “organosol” applies to these dispersions (Fig. 16–1).
Approximately 10% of the polyvinyl chloride resin used in the United States is dispersion-grade resin. The major markets for PVC dispersion resins are floor coverings, carpet tiles, coated industrial fabrics, medical gloves, decorative films, coil coating, and automotive sealants.
KeywordsShear Rate Fusion Temperature Rotational Molding Spread Coating Applicator Roll
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