Advertisement

Retardation

Chapter
  • 97 Downloads

Abstract

Defining retardation is a complicated task. The problems exhibited by individuals who have been labeled retarded can be extensive, affecting many areas of human functioning. In fact, one problem encountered in surveying behavior modification and therapy in the field of retardation is that retardation is a diagnostic term. As such, it identifies a category of people rather than a specific set of behaviors—the real domain of behavior modification. To align things appropriately, this chapter emphasizes, as have Bijou (1963) and Lindsley (1964), that behaviors, as opposed to individuals, are retarded. This perspective raises an issue about the term mental retardation when used by a behaviorist. Whatever is retarded when viewed from the standpoint of behaviorism is not 44mentality.” Some individuals in the field have advocated replacing the term mental with either developmental or behavioral (cf. Bijou, 1966). Neither of these alternatives appears to have met with widespread acceptance.

Keywords

Apply Behavior Analysis Mental Deficiency Retarded Child Childhood Disorder Toilet Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramson, E. E., & Wunderlich, R. A. Dental hygiene training for retardates: An application of behavioral techniques. Mental Retardation, 1972, 10, 6–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, K. E., Henke, L. B., Harris, F. R., Baer, D. M., & Reynolds, N. J. Control of hyperactivity by social reinforcement of attending behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1967, 58, 231–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayllon, T., & Kelly, K. Effects of reinforcement on standardized test performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1972, 5, 447–484.Google Scholar
  4. Ayllon, T., & Robert, M. D. Eliminating discipline problems by strengthening academic performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 71–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Azrin, N. H. A strategy for applied research: Learning based but outcome oriented. American Psychologist, 1977, 32, 140–149.Google Scholar
  6. Azrin, N. H., & Armstrong, P. M. The “mini-meal”—A method of teaching eating skills to the profoundly retarded. Mental Retardation, February 1973, 11, 9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Azrin, N. H., & Foxx, R. M. A rapid method of toilet training the institutionalized retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1971, 4, 89–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Azrin, N. H., & Holz, W. C. Punishment. In W. K. Honig (Ed.), Operant behavior: Areas of research and application. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966.Google Scholar
  9. Azrin, N. H., & Powers, M. A. Eliminating classroom disturbances of emotionally-disturbed children by positive practice procedures. Behavior Therapy, 1975, 6, 525–534.Google Scholar
  10. Azrin, N. H., & Wesolowski, M. D. Theft reversal: An overcorrection procedure for eliminating stealing by retarded persons. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 577–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Azrin, N. H., & Wesolowski, M. D. The use of positive practice to eliminate persistant floor sprawling by profoundly retarded persons. Behavior Therapy, 1975, 6, 627–631.Google Scholar
  12. Azrin, N. H., Kaplan, S. J., & Foxx, R. M. Autism reversal: Eliminating stereotyped self-stimulation of retarded individuals. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1973, 78, 241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Azrin, N. H., Schaeffer, R. M., & Wesolowski, D. A rapid method of teaching profoundly retarded persons to dress by a reinforcement-guidance method, Mental Retardation, 1976, 14, 29–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baer, D. M., & Guess, D. Receptive training of adjectival inflections in mental retardates. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1971, 4, 129–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baer, D. M., & Sherman, J. A. Reinforcement control of generalized imitation in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1964, 1, 37–49.Google Scholar
  16. Baer, D. M., Peterson, R. F., & Sherman, J. A. The development of imitation by reinforcing behavioral similarity to a model. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1967, 10, 405–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ball, T. S., Serie, K., & Payne, L. E. Long-term retention of self-help skill training in the profoundly retarded. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, 76, 378–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barkley, R. A., & Zupnick, S. Reduction of stereotypic body contortions using physical restraint and DRO. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1976, 8, 167–170.Google Scholar
  19. Barry, K., Apolloni, T., & Cooke, T. P. Improving the personal hygiene of mildly retarded men in a community-based residential training program. Corrective and Social Psychiatry and Journal of Behavior Technology Methods and Therapy, 1977, 23, 65–68.Google Scholar
  20. Barton, E. S., Guess, D., Garcia, E., & Baer, D. M. Improvement of retardates’ mealtime behaviors by timeout procedures using multiple baseline techniques. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1970, 3, 77–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bauman, K. E., & Iwata, B. A. Maintenance of independent housekeeping skills using scheduling plus self-recording procedures. Behavior Therapy, 1977, 8, 554–560.Google Scholar
  22. Baumeister, A., & Klosowski, R. An attempt to group toilet train severely retarded patients. Mental Retardation, December 1965, 3, 24–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Baumeister, A. A., & Baumeister, A. A. Suppression of repetitive self-injurious behavior by contingent inhalation of aromatic ammonia. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1978, 8, 71–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Baumeister, A. A., & Forehand, R. Effects of contingent shock and verbal command on body rocking of retardates. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1972, 28, 586–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Baumeister, A. A., & Forehand, R. Stereotyped acts. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation, Vol. 6. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  26. Bellamy, A. T., & Clark, G. Picture recipe cards as an approach to teaching severely and profoundly retarded adults to cook. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 1977, 12, 69–73.Google Scholar
  27. Bensberg, G. J. (Ed.). Teaching the mentally retarded. Atlanta: Southern Regional Education Board, 1965.Google Scholar
  28. Bensberg, G. J., & Slominski, A. Helping the retarded learn self-care. In G. J. Bensberg (Ed.), Teaching the mentally retarded: A handbook for ward personnel. Atlanta: Southern Regional Education Board, 1965.Google Scholar
  29. Bensberg, G. J., Colwell, C. N., & Cassel, R. H. Teaching the profoundly retarded self-help activities by behavior shaping techniques. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1965, 69, 674–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Berkson, G., & Davenport, R. K. Stereotyped movements in mental defectives: I. Initial survey. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1962, 66, 849–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bijou, S. W. Theory and research in mental (developmental) retardation. Psychological Record, 1963, 13, 95–110.Google Scholar
  32. Bijou, S. W. A functional analysis of retarded development. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation. New York: Academic Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  33. Birnbrauer, J. S. Mental retardation. In H. Leitenberg (Ed.), Handbook of behavior modification and behavior therapy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1976.Google Scholar
  34. Bricker, D. D. Imitative sign training as a facilitator of word-object association with low-functioning children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1972, 76, 509–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Brown, L., & Pearce, F. Increasing the production rates of trainable retarded students in a public school simulated workshop. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 1970, 5, 15–22.Google Scholar
  36. Brown, L., Fenrick, N., & Klemme, H. Trainable pupils learn to teach each other. Teaching Exceptional Children, 1971, 4, 18–24.Google Scholar
  37. Bucher, B., & Lovaas, O. I. Use of aversive stimulation in behavior modification. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Miami Symposium on the Prediction of Behavior, 1967: Aversive stimulation. Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  38. Bucher, B., Reykdal, B., & Albin, J. Brief physical restraint to control Pica in retarded children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1976, 7, 137–140.Google Scholar
  39. Butz, R. A., & Hasazi, J. E. The effects of reinforcement on perseverative speech in a mildly retarded boy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1973, 4, 167–170.Google Scholar
  40. Cairns, R. B., & Paris, S. G. Informational determinants of social reinforcement effectiveness among retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, 76, 362–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Campbell, S. B. Mother-child interaction in reflective, impulsive, and hyperactive children. Developmental Psychology, 1973, 8, 341–349.Google Scholar
  42. Clark, H. B., Boyd, S. B., & Macrae, J. W. A classroom program teaching disadvantaged youths to write biographic information. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1975, 8, 67–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Coleman, E. B. Collecting a data base for reading technology. Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph, 1970, 67(4, Pt. 2), 1–23.Google Scholar
  44. Coleman, R. S., Whitman, T. L., & Johnson, M. R., Suppression of self-stimulatory behavior of a profoundly retarded boy across staff and settings: An assessment of situational generalization. Behavior Therapy, 1979, 10, 266–280.Google Scholar
  45. Corte, H. E., Wolf, M. M., & Locke, B. J. A comparison of procedures for eliminating self-injurious behavior of retarded adolescents. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1971, 4, 201–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Cuvo, A. J., Leaf, R. B., & Borakove, L. S. Teaching janitorial skills to the mentally retarded: Acquisition, generalization, and maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1978, 11, 345–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dayan, M. Toilet training retarded children in a state residential institution. Mental Retardation, 1964, 2, 116–117.Google Scholar
  48. DeCatanzaro, D. A., & Baldwin, G. Effective treatment of self-injurious behavior through a forced arm exercise. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1978, 82, 433–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Deitz, S. M., & Repp, A. C. Decreasing classroom misbehavior through the use of DRL schedules of reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1973, 6, 457–463.Google Scholar
  50. Dietz, S. M., Repp, A. C., & Dietz, D. E. Reducing inappropriate classroom behavior of retarded students through three procedures of differential reinforcement. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 1976, 20, 155–170.Google Scholar
  51. Dingman, H. F., & Taijan, G. Mental retardation and the normal distribution curve. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1960, 64, 991–994.Google Scholar
  52. Doleys, S. M., Wells, K. C., Hobbs, S. A., Roberts, M. W., & Cartelli, L. M. The effects of social punishment on noncompliance: A comparison with timeout and positive practice. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1976, 9, 471–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dorry, G. W. Attentional model for the effectiveness of fading in training reading-vocabulary with retarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1976, 81, 271–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Duffy, G. G., & Sherman, G. B. Systematic reading instruction (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row, 1977.Google Scholar
  55. Duker, P. C. Behaviour control of self-biting in a Lesch- Nyhan patient. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 1975, 19, 11–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Duker, P. C., & Seys, D. M. Elimination of vomiting in a retarded female using restitutional overcorrection. Behavior Therapy, 1977, 8, 255–257.Google Scholar
  57. Edlund, C. V. The effect on the test behavior of children, as reflected in the IQ scores, when reinforced after each correct response. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1972, 5, 317–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ellis, N. R., Toilet training the severely defective patient: An S-R reinforcement analysis. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1963, 68, 98–103.Google Scholar
  59. Evans, G. W., & Spradlin, J. E. Incentives and instructions as controlling variables of productivity. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1966, 71, 129–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Evans, R. G. The reduction of hyperactive behavior in three profoundly retarded adolescents through increased stimulation. AAESPH Review, 1979, 4, 259–263.Google Scholar
  61. Favell, J. E., Favell, J. E., & McGimsey, J. F. Relative effectiveness and efficiency of group vs. individual training of severely retarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1978, 83, 104–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Favell, J. E., Favell, J. E., Seals, E., & Risley, T. R. The evaluation-feedback system: Getting services to the people. Unpublished manuscript, 1978.Google Scholar
  63. Favell, J. E., McGimsey, J. F., & Jones, M. L. The use of physical restraint in the treatment of self-injury and as positive reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1978, 11, 225–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ferritor, D. E., Buckholdt, D., Hamblin, R. L., & Smith, L. The non-effects of contingent reinforcement for attending behavior on work accomplished. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1972, 5, 7–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Fleming, E. R. Training passive and aggressive educable mentally retarded children for assertive behaviors using three types of structured learning training. (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University.) Dissertation Abstracts International, 1976, 37A, 235.Google Scholar
  66. Forehand, R., & Baumeister, A. A. Deceleration of aberrant behavior among retarded individuals. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification. New York: Academic Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  67. Foxx, R. M. The use of overcorrection to eliminate the public disrobing (stripping) of retarded women. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1976, 14, 53–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Foxx, R. M., & Azrin, N. H. Restitution: A method of eliminating aggressive-disruptive behavior of mentally retarded and brain damaged patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1972, 10, 15–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Foxx, R. M., & Azrin, N. H. The elimination of autistic self-stimulatory behavior by over-correction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1973, 6, 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Foxx, R. M., & Shapiro, S. T. The timeout ribbon: A nonexclusionary timeout procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1978, 11, 125–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Frankel, F., & Simmons, J. Q. Self-injurious behavior in schizophrenic and retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1976, 80, 512–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Frankel, F., Moss, D., Schofield, S., & Simmons, J. Q. Case study: Use of differential reinforcement to suppress self-injurious and aggressive behavior. Psychological Reports, 1976, 39, 843–849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Freeman, B. J., Roy, R. R., & Hemmick, S. Extinction of a phobia of physical examination in a seven-year-old mentally retarded boy: A case study. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1976, 14, 63–64.Google Scholar
  74. Fuller, P. R. Operant conditioning of a vegetative human organism. American Journal of Psychology, 1949, 62, 587–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gamache, R. F., & Madle, R. A. Word discrimination in institutionalized mentally retarded adults utilizing a fading procedure. Research and the Retarded, 1976, 3, 14–23.Google Scholar
  76. Garcia, E., Baer, D. M., & Firestone, I. The development of generalized imitation within topographically determined boundaries. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1971, 4, 101–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gardner, J. M. Teaching behavior modification to nonprofessionals. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1972, 5, 517–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gardner, J. M., Training the trainers: A review of research on teaching behavior modification. In C. M. Franks & R. Rubin (Eds.), Advances in behavior therapy: Proceedings, 1971. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  79. Giles, D. K., & Wolf, M. M. Toilet training institutionalized, severe retardates: An application of operant behavior modification techniques. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1966, 70, 766–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Girardeau, F. L., & Spradlin, J. E. Token rewards in a cottage program. Mental Retardation, 1964, 2, 345–351.Google Scholar
  81. Gold, M. W., Research on the vocational habilitation of the retarded: The present, the future. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation, Vol. 6. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.Google Scholar
  82. Goldstein, A. P. Structured learning therapy: Toward a psychotherapy for the poor. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  83. Gorton, C. E., & Hollis, J. H. Redesigning a cottage unit for better programming and research for the severely retarded. Mental Retardation, 1965, 3, 16–21.Google Scholar
  84. Greene, B. F., Willis, B. S., Levy, R., & Bailey, J. S. Measuring client gains from staff-implemented programs. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1978, 11, 395–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Greene, R. J., & Hoats, D. L. Reinforcing capabilities of television distortion. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1969, 2, 139–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Greene, R. J., & Hoats, D. L. Aversive tickling: A simple conditioning technique. Behavior Therapy, 1971, 2, 389–393.Google Scholar
  87. Griffin, J. C., Locke, B. J., & Landers, W. F. Manipulation of potential punishment parameters in the treatment of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1975, 8, 458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Griffiths, H., & Craighead, W. E. Generalization in operant articulation therapy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1972, 37, 485–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Grossman, W. J. (Ed.). Manual on terminology and classification in mental retardation. Washington, D.C.: American Association on Mental Deficiency, 1977.Google Scholar
  90. Guralnick, M. J. Behavior therapy with an acrophobic mentally retarded young adult. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1973, 4, 263—265.Google Scholar
  91. Hamilton, J. W., & Standahl, J. Suppression of stereotyped screaming behavior in a 24 year old profoundly retarded girl. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1969, 7, 114–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hamilton, J. W., Stephens, L. Y., & Allen, P. Controlling aggressive and destructive behavior in severely retarded institutionalized residents. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1967, 71, 852–856.Google Scholar
  93. Hanson, M. Training your Down’s syndrome infant: A guide for parents. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  94. Harris, J. M., Veit, S. W., Allen, A. J., & Chinsky, J. M. Aide-resident ratio and ward population density as mediators of social interaction. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1974, 79, 320–326.Google Scholar
  95. Harris, S. L., & Ersner-Hershfield, R. Behavioral suppression of seriously disruptive behavior in psychotic and retarded patients: A review of punishment and its alternatives. Psychological Bulletin, 1978, 85, 1352–1375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Harris, S. L., & Romanczyk, R. Treating self-injurious behavior of a retarded child by overcorrection. Behavior Therapy, 1976, 7, 235–239.Google Scholar
  97. Harvey, J. R. The potential of relaxation training for the mentally retarded. Mental Retardation, 1979, 17, 71–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Harvey, J. R., Karan, O. C., Bhargava, D., & Morehouse, N. Relaxation training and cognitively oriented behavioral procedures to reduce violent temper outbursts in a moderately retarded woman. Unpublished manuscript, 1978.Google Scholar
  99. Haubrich, P. A., & Shores, R. Attending behavior and academic performance of emotionally disturbed children. Exceptional Children, 1976, 42, 337–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Henriksen, K., & Doughty, R. Decelerating undesirable mealtime behavior in a group of profoundly retarded boys. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1967, 72, 40–44.Google Scholar
  101. Hersen, M., & Bellack, A. S. Social skills training for chronic, psychiatric patients: Rationale, research findings, and future directions. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1976, 42, 559–580.Google Scholar
  102. Hopkins, B. L. Effects of candy and social reinforcement, instructions, and reinforcement schedule learning on the modification and maintenance of smiling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1968, 1, 121–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Horner, R. D. Detailed progress report: Behavior modification program to develop self-help skills. Final report. Wheat Ridge, Colo.: State Home and Training School. 1970.Google Scholar
  104. Horner, R. D., & Keilitz, I. Training mentally retarded adolescents to brush their teeth. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1975, 5, 301–309.Google Scholar
  105. Hundziak, M., Maurer, R. A., & Watson, L. S., Jr. Operant conditioning in toilet training of severely mentally retarded boys. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1965, 70, 120–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hunt, J. G., & Zimmerman, J. Stimulating productivity in a simulated sheltered workshop setting. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1969, 74, 43–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hunt, J. G., Fitzhugh, L. C., & Fitzhugh, K. B. Teaching “exit-ward” patients appropriate personal appearance by using reinforcement techniques. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1968, 73, 41–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Husted, J. R., Hall, P., & Agin, B. The effectiveness of time-out in reducing maladaptive behavior of autistic and retarded children. Journal of Psychology, 1971, 79, 189–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Iwata, B. A., & Lorentzson, A. M. Operant control of seizure-like behavior in an institutionalized retarded adult. Behavior Therapy, 1976, 7, 247–251.Google Scholar
  110. Iwata, B. A., Bailey, J. S., Brown, K. M., Foshee, T. J., & Alpern, M. A performance-based lottery to improve residential care and training by institutional staff. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1976, 9, 417–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Jackson, D. A., & Wallace, R. F. The modification and generalization of voice loudness in a fifteen-year-old retarded girl. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 461–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Jackson, G. M., Johnson, C. R., Ackron, G. S., & Crowley, R. Food satiation as a procedure to decelerate vomiting. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1975, 80, 223–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Jens, K. E., & Shores, R. E. Behavioral graphs as reinforcers for work behavior of mentally retarded adolescents. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 1969, 4, 21–28.Google Scholar
  114. Johnson, M. S., & Bailey, J. S. The modification of leisure behavior in a half-way house for retarded women. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1977, 10, 273–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kazdin, A. E. Toward a client administered token reinforcement program. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 1971, 6, 52–55.Google Scholar
  116. Kazdin, A. E. The effect of response cost and aversive stimulation in suppressing punished and nonpunished speech disfluencies. Behavior Therapy, 1973, 4, 73–82.Google Scholar
  117. Kazdin, A. E. The token economy: A review and evaluation. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  118. Kazdin, A. E. Behavior modification in retardation. In J. T. Neisworth & R. M. Smith (Eds.), Retardation: Issues, assessment, and intervention. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.Google Scholar
  119. Kazdin, A. E., & Craighead, W. E. Behavior modification in special education. In L. Mann & D. A. Sabatino (Eds.), The first review of special education, Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Button wood Farms, 1973.Google Scholar
  120. Kazdin, A. E., & Erickson, L. M., Developing responsiveness to instructions in severely and profoundly retarded residents. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1975, 6, 17–21.Google Scholar
  121. Keilitz, I., Tucker, D. J., & Horner, R. D. Increasing mentally retarded adolescents’ verbalizations about current events. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1973, 6, 621–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kelly, J. A., & Drabman, R. S. Generalizing response suppression of self-injurious behavior through an overcorrection punishment procedure: A case study. Behavior Therapy, 1977, 8, 468–472.Google Scholar
  123. Kimbrell, D. L., Luckey, R. E., Barbuto, P. F. P., & Love, J. G. Operation dry pants: An intensive habit- training program for severely and profoundly retarded. Mental Retardation, February 1967, 5, 32–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kimmel, H. D., & Kimmel, E. An instrumental conditioning method for the treatment of enuresis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1970, 1, 121–123.Google Scholar
  125. Kirk, S.A. Educating exceptional children (2nd ed.). New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 1972.Google Scholar
  126. Kurtz, P. D., & Neisworth, J. T. Self-control possibilities for exceptional children. Exceptional Child, 1976, 42, 212–217.Google Scholar
  127. Lahey, B. B., McNees, M. P., & McNees, M. C. Control of an obscene “verbal tic” through time-out in an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1973, 6, 101–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Lattal, K. A. Contingency management of toothbrushing in a summer camp for children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1969, 2, 195–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Leff, R. B. Teaching the TMR to dial the telephone. Mental Retardation, 1974, 12, 12–13.Google Scholar
  130. Leff, R. B. Teaching use of phone. Mental Retardation, 1975, 13, 9–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lent, J. R. Mimosa Cottage: Experiment in hope. Psychology Today, 1968, 2(1), 50–58.Google Scholar
  132. Lindsley, O. R. Direct measurement and prosthesis of retarded behavior. Journal of Education, 1964, 147, 62–81.Google Scholar
  133. Lindsley, O. R. An experiment with parents handling behavior in the home. Johnstone Bulletin, 1966, 9, 27–36.Google Scholar
  134. Long, J. D., & Williams, R. L. The utility of self-man- agement procedure in modifying the classroom behaviors of mentally retarded adolescents. Adolescence, 1976, 11, 29–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Lovaas, O. I., & Simmons, J. Q. Manipulation of self- destruction in three retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1969, 2, 143–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Lowe, M. L., & Cuvo, A. J. Teaching coin summation to the mentally retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1976, 9, 483–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Lucero, W. J., Frieman, J., Spoering, K., & Fehren- bacher, J. Comparison of three procedures in reducing self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1976, 80, 548–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Luckey, R. E., Watson, C. M., & Musick, J. K. Aversive conditioning as a means of inhibiting vomiting and rumination. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1968, 73, 139–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Luiseiii, J. K. Case report: An attendant-administered contingency management progamme for the treatment of a toileting phobia. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 1977, 21, 283–288.Google Scholar
  140. Lutzker, J. R., & Sherman, J. Producing generative sentence usage by imitation and reinforcement procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 447–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Madie, R. A. Issues in research on paraprofessional training in behavior modification. Paper presented at the Meeting of the Mideastern Region of the American Association on Mental Deficiency, Buckhill Falls, Pennsylvania, November 1975.Google Scholar
  142. Madie, R. A. Intonation and instructions as factors in discrimination learning of institutionalized retarded adults. (Doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University.) Dissertation Abstracts International, 1976, 37A, 189.Google Scholar
  143. Mahoney, M. J., & Mahoney, K. Self-control techniques with the mentally retarded. Exceptional Children, 1976, 42, 338–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Mahoney, K., Van Wagenen, R. K., & Meyerson, L. Toilet training of normal and retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1971, 4, 173–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Mansdorf, I. J. Eliminating fear in a mentally retarded adult by behavioral hierarchies and operant techniques. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1976, 7, 189–190.Google Scholar
  146. Marholin, D., II, Steinman, W. M., Mclnnis, E. T., & Heads, T. B. The effect of a teacher’s presence on the classroom behavior of conduct-problem children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1975, 3, 11–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Marholin, D., O’Toole, K., Touchette, P., Berger, P., & Doyle, D. “I’ll have a Big Mac, large fries, large coke, and apple pie”… or teaching adaptive community skills. Behavior Therapy, 1979, 10, 236–248.Google Scholar
  148. Marshall, G. R. Toilet training of an autistic eight-year- old through conditioning therapy: A case report. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1966, 4, 242–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Martin, G. L., McDonald, S., & Omichinski, M. An operant analysis of response interactions during meals with severely retarded girls. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1971, 76, 68–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Martin, P. L., & Foxx, R. M. Victim control of the aggression of an institutionalized retardate. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1973, 4, 161–165.Google Scholar
  151. Matson, J., & Stephens, R. Overcorrection of aggressive behavior in a chronic psychiatric patient. Behavior Modification, 1977, 1, 559–564.Google Scholar
  152. Matson, J. L., & Stephens, R. M. Increasing appropriate behavior of explosive chronic psychiatric patients with a social-skills training package. Behavior Modification, 1978, 2, 61–76.Google Scholar
  153. Mayhew, G. L., Enyart, P., & Anderson, J. Social reinforcement and the naturally occuring social responses of severely and profoundly retarded adults. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1978, 55, 164–170.Google Scholar
  154. Measel, C. J., & Alfieri, P. A. Treatment of self-injurious behavior by a combination of reinforcement for incompatible behavior and overcorrection. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1976, 81, 147–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Mercatoris, M., Hahn, L. G., & Craighead, W. E. Mentally retarded residents as paraprofessionals in modifying mealtime behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1975, 84, 299–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Miller, A., & Miller, E. E. Cognitive-developmental training with elevated boards and sign language. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1973, 3, 65–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Minge, M. R., & Ball, T. S. Teaching of self-help skills to profoundly retarded patients. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1967, 71, 864–868.Google Scholar
  158. Mitchell, A. C., & Smeriglio, V. Growth in social competence in institutionalized mentally retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1970, 74, 666–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Morris, R. J., & Dolker, M. Developing cooperative play in socially withdrawn retarded children. Mental Retardation, 1974, 12, 24–27.Google Scholar
  160. Morrison, D. Issues in the application of reinforcement theory in the treatment of a child’s self-injurious behavior. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 1972, 9, 40–45.Google Scholar
  161. Mowrer, O. H., & Mowrer, W. M. Enuresis: A method for its study and treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1938, 8, 436–459.Google Scholar
  162. Mulhern, T., & Baumeister, A. A. An experimental attempt to reduce stereotypy by reinforcement procedures. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1969, 74, 69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Murdock, J. Y., Garcia, E. E., & Hardman, M. L. Generalizing articulation training with trainable mentally retarded subjects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1977, 10, 717–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Nay, W. R. A systematic comparison of instructional techniques for parents. Behavior Therapy, 1975, 6, 14–21.Google Scholar
  165. Neef, N. A., Iwata, B. A., & Page, T. J. Public transportation training: In vivo versus classroom instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1978, 11, 331–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Neisworth, J. T., & Madle, R. A. Time-out with staff accountability: A technical note. Behavior Therapy, 1976, 7, 261–263.Google Scholar
  167. Neisworth, J. T., & Smith, R. M. Modifying retarded behavior. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973.Google Scholar
  168. Neisworth, J. T., & Smith, R. M. Analysis and redefinition of “developmental disabilities.” Exceptional Children, 1974, 40, 345–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Neisworth, J. T., Madle, R. A., & Goeke, K. E. “Errorless” elimination of separation anxiety: A case study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1975, 6, 79–82.Google Scholar
  170. Neisworth, J. T., Jones, R. T., & Smith, R. M. Body- behavior problems: A conceptualization. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, October 1978, 13, 265–271.Google Scholar
  171. Nelson, G. L., Cone, J. D., & Hanson, C. R. Training correct utensil use in retarded children: Modeling vs. physical guidance. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1975, 80, 114–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Newton, A. Clothing: A positive part of the rehabilitation process. Journal of Rehabilitation, 1976, 42, 18–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Nunes, D. L., Murphy, R. J., & Ruprecht, M. L. Reducing self-injurious behavior of severely retarded individuals through withdrawal of reinforcement procedures. Behavior Modification, 1977, 1, 499–516.Google Scholar
  174. Nutter, D., & Reid, D. H. Teaching retarded women a clothing selection skill using communicaty norms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1978, 11, 475–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. O’Brien, F., & Azrin, N. H. Developing proper mealtime behaviors of the institutionalized retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1972, 5, 389–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. O’Brien, F., Bugle, C., & Azrin, N. H. Training and maintaining a retarded child’s proper eating. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1972, 5, 67–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Ollendick, T. H., Matson, J. L., & Martin, J. E. Effectiveness of hand overcorrection for topographically similar and dissimilar self-stimulatory behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1978, 25, 396–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Page, T. J., Iwata, B. A., & Neef, N. A. Teaching pedestrian skills to retarded persons: Generalization from the classroom to the natural environment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1976, 9, 433–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Palyo, W. J., Schüler, A. L., Cooke, T. P., & Apolloni, T. Modifying echolalic speech in preschool children: Training and generalization, American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1979, 83, 480–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Panda, K. C., & Lynch, W. W. Effects of social reinforcement on retarded children: A review and interpretation for classroom instruction. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 1972, 7, 115–123.Google Scholar
  181. Parsonson, B. S., Baer, A. M., & Baer, D. M. The application of generalized correct social contingencies: An evaluation of a training program. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 427–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Paschalis, A., Kimmel, H. D., & Kimmel, E. Further study of diurnal instrumental conditioning in the treatment of enuresis nocturna. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1972, 3, 253–256.Google Scholar
  183. Peck, C. L. Densensitization for the treatment of fear in the high level adult retardate. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1977, 18, 137–148.Google Scholar
  184. Perry, M. A., & Cerreto, M. C. Structured learning training of social skills for the retarded. Mental Retardation, 1977, 15, 31–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Peterson, G. A., Austin, G. J., & Lang, R. P. Use of teacher prompts to increase social behavior: Generalization effects with severely and profoundly retarded adolescents. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1979, 84, 82–86.Google Scholar
  186. Premack, D. Toward empirical behavior laws: I. Positive reinforcement. Psychological Review, 1959, 66, 219–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Public Law 91.517, 91st Congress, S.2846, October 30, 1970.Google Scholar
  188. Reid, D. H., & Hurlbut, B. Teaching nonvocal communication skills to multihandicapped retarded adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1977, 10, 591–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Reisinger, J. J. The treatment of “anxiety depression” via positive reinforcement and response cost. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1972, 5, 125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Repp, A. C., & Deitz, S. M. Reducing aggressive and self- injurious behavior of institutionalized retarded children through reinforcement of other behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 313–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Repp, A. C., & Dietz, D. E. Ethical issues in reducing responding of institutionalized mentally retarded persons. Mental Retardation, 1978, 16, 45–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Repp, A. C., & Dietz, D. Improving administrative-related staff behaviors at a state institution. Mental Retardation, 1979, 17, 185–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Repp, A. C., Deitz, S. M., & Speir, N. C. Reducing stereotypic responding of retarded persons by the differential reinforcement of other behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1974, 79, 279–284.Google Scholar
  194. Reynolds, M. C., & Kiland, J. R. A study of public school children with severe mental retardation. St. Paul, Minn.: State Department of Education, 1953.Google Scholar
  195. Risley, T. R. The effects and side effects of punishing the autistic behaviors of a deviant child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1968, 1, 21–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Risley, T. R., & Wolf, M. M. Establishing functional speech in echolalic children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1967, 5, 73–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Robinson, N. M., & Robinson, H. B. The mentally retarded child: A psychological approach (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.Google Scholar
  198. Ross, D. M., & Ross, S. A. The efficacy of listening training for educable mentally retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1972, 77, 137–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Ross, D. M., & Ross, S. A. Cognitive training for the EMR child: Situational problem solving and planning. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1973, 78, 20–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Ross, D. M., and Ross, S. A. Pacemaker primary curriculum. Belmont, Calif.: Fearon Publishers, 1974.Google Scholar
  201. Ross, R. R., Meichenbaum, D. H., & Humphrey, C. Treatment of nocturnal head banging by behavior modification techniques: A case report. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1971, 9, 151–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Sajwaj, T. Issues and implications of establishing guidelines for the use of behavioral techniques. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1977, 10, 531–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Sajwaj, T., & Hedges, D. “Side-effects” of a punishment procedure in an oppositional, retarded child. Paper presented at a meeting of the Western Psychological Association, San Francisco, April 1971.Google Scholar
  204. Sajwaj, T., Twardosz, S., & Burke, M. Side effects of extinction procedures in a remedial preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1972, 5, 163–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Sajwaj, T., Libet, J., & Agras, S. Lemon-juice therapy: The control of life-threatening rumination in a six- month-old infant. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 557–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Samaras, M. S., & Ball, T. S. Reinforcement of cooperation between profoundly retarded adults. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1975, 80, 63–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Sarason, S. B., & Doris, J. Psychological problems in mental deficiency. New York: Harper & Row, 1969.Google Scholar
  208. Schroeder, S. R., Peterson, C. R., Solomon, L. J., & Artley, J.J. EMG feedback and the contingent restraint of self-injurious behavior among the severely retarded: Two case illustrations. Behavior Therapy, 1977, 8, 738–741.Google Scholar
  209. Sidman, M. Reading and auditory-visual equivalences. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1971, 14, 5–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Sidman, M., & Cresson, O., Jr. Reading and cross modal transfer of stimulus equivalences in severe retardation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1973, 77, 515–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Silvestri, R. Implosive therapy treatment of emotionally disturbed retardates. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45, 14–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Skinner, B. F. Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan, 1953.Google Scholar
  213. Sloane, H. N., Jr., Johnston, M. K., & Harris, F. R. Remedial procedures for teaching verbal behavior to speech deficient or defective young children. In H. N. Sloane, Jr., & B. D. MacAulay (Eds.), Operant procedures in remedial speech and language training. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1968.Google Scholar
  214. Sloop, E. W., & Kennedy, W. A. Institutionalized retarded nocturnal enuretics treated by a conditioning technique. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1973, 77, 717–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Snyder, L. K., Lovitt, T. C., & Smith, J. O. Language training for the severely retarded: Five years of behavior analysis research. Exceptional Children, 1975, 42(1), 7–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Solnick, J. V., Rincover, A., & Peterson, C. R. Some determinants of the reinforcing and punishing effects of time-out. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1977, 10, 415–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Spradlin, J. E., & Girardeau, F. L. The behavior of moderately and severely retarded persons. In N. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation, Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  218. Stark, J., Meisel, J., & Wright, T. S. Modifying maladaptive behavior in a non-verbal child. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1969, 4, 67–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Stephan, C., Stephano, S., & Talkington, L. W. Use of modeling in survival social training with educable mentally retarded. Training School Bulletin, 1973, 70, 63–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Stimbert, V. E., Minor, J. W., & McCoy, J. F. Intensive feeding training with retarded children. Behavior Modification, 1977, 1, 517–530.Google Scholar
  221. Stokes, T. F., Baer, D. M., & Jackson, R. L. Programming the generalization of a greeting response in four retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 599–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Storm, R. M., & Willis, J. H. Small-group training as an alternative to individual programs for profoundly retarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1978, 83, 283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Strain, P. Increasing social play of severely retarded preschoolers with socio-dramatic activities. Mental Retardation, 1975, 13, 7–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Striefel, S., & Wetherby, B. Instruction-following behavior of a retarded child and its controlling stimuli. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1973, 6, 663–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Striefel, S., Wetherby, B., & Karlan, G. R. Establishing generalized verb-noun instruction-following skills in retarded children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1976, 22, 247–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights. Individual rights and the federal role in behavior modification. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.Google Scholar
  227. Tarpley, H. D., & Schroeder, S. R. Comparison of DRO and DRI on rate of suppression of self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1979, 84, 188–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Tate, B. G., & Baroff, G. S. Aversive control of self- injurious behavior in a psychotic boy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1966, 4, 281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. ~.icson, C. E., & Mahoney, M. J. Behavioral self-control. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1974.Google Scholar
  230. Tobias, J. Training for independent living: A three year report of occupation day center for mentally retarded adults. New York: Association for Retarded Children, 1963, (Mimeographed.)Google Scholar
  231. Twardosz, S., & Sajwaj, T. Multiple effects of a procedure to increase sitting in a hyperactive, retarded boy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1972, 5, 73–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. VanBiervliet, A. Establishing words and objects as functionally equivalent through manual sign training. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1977, 82, 178–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Van Wagenen, R. K., Meyerson, L., Kerr, N. J., & Mahoney, K. Field trials of a new procedure for toilet training. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1969, 8, 147–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Wallace, J., Burger, D., Neal, H. C., van Brero, M., & Davis, D. E. Aversive conditioning use in public facilities for the mentally retarded. Mental Retardation, 1976, 14, 17–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Walsh, B. F., & Lamberts, F. Errorless discrimination and picture fading as techniques for teaching sight words to TMR students. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1979, 83, 473–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Warren, S. A. Academic achievement of trainable pupils with five or more years of schooling. Training School Bulletin, 1963, 60, 75–88.Google Scholar
  237. Watson, L. S. Applications of behavior shaping-devices to training severely and profoundly retarded children in an institutional setting. Mental Retardation, 1968, 6, 21–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Watson, L. S. How to use behavior modification with mentally retarded and autistic children: Programs for administrators, teachers, parents, and nurses. Libertyville, Ill.: Behavior Modification Technology, 1972.Google Scholar
  239. Wells, K. C., Turner, J. M., Bellack, A. S., & Hersen, M. Effects of cue-controlled relaxation on psychomotor seizures: An experimental analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1978, 16, 51–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Whaley, D. L., & Tough, J. Treatment of a self-injuring mongoloid with shock-induced suppression and avoidance. In R. Ulrich, R. Stachnik, & J. Mabry (Eds.), Control of human behavior, Vol. 2. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1970.Google Scholar
  241. Wheeler, A. J., & Wislocki, E. B. Stimulus factors effecting peer conversation among institutionalized retarded women. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1977, 10, 283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Whitman, T. L., Mercurio, J. R., & Caponigri, V. Development of social responses in two severely retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1970, 3, 133–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Wiesen, A. E., & Watson, E. Elimination of attention- seeking behavior in a retarded child. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1967, 72, 50–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Wolf, M. M., Risley, T. R., & Mees, H. Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behaviour problems of an autistic child. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1964, 1, 305–312.Google Scholar
  245. Wolf, M. M., Birnbrauer, J. S., Williams, T., & Lawler, J. A note on apparent extinction of the vomiting behavior of a retarded child. In L. Ullmann & L. Krasner (Eds.), Case studies in behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965.Google Scholar
  246. Wolfensberger, W. Normalization: The principle of normalization in human services. Toronto: National Institute on Mental Retardation, 1972.Google Scholar
  247. Young, J. A., & Wincze, J. P. The effects of the rein- force*nent of compatible and incompatible alternative behaviors on the self-injurious and related behaviors of a profoundly retarded female adult. Behavior Therapy, 1974, 5, 614–623.Google Scholar
  248. Zieler, M. D., & Jervey, S. S. Development of behavior: Self-feeding. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1968, 32, 164–168.Google Scholar
  249. Zimmerman, J., Overpeck, C., Eisenberg, H., & Garlick, B. Operant conditioning in a sheltered workshop. Rehabilitation Literature, 1969, 30, 326–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Zimmerman, J., Stuckey, T. E., Garlick, B. J., & Miller, M. Effects of token reinforcement on productivity in multiply handicapped clients in a sheltered workshop. Rehabilitation Literature, 1969, 30, 34–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Zimmerman, E. H., Zimmerman, J., & Russell, D. Differential effects of token reinforcement on instruction- following behavior in retarded students instructed as a group. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1969, 2, 101–118. Google Scholar
  252. Zlutnick, S., Mayville, W. J., & Moffat, S. Modification of seizure disorders: The interruption of behavioral chains. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1975, 8, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Special EducationThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Director of Training and EvaluationLaurelton CenterLaureltonUSA
  3. 3.Division of Individual and Family StudiesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations