Clinical Dose-Response Effects of Exercise

  • E. W. Banister
  • R. H. Morton
  • J. R. Fitz-Clarke


Stimuli used to probe the acute physical/physiological response to exercise are well known and characterised so that the pattern and size of their effect may be used diagnostically with some precision (21,22). There is no similar precision of thought on training. Although most training studies show the generally positive benefit of exercise, there is no formal training theory developed for exercise such as the type, quantity or pattern of a training stimulus necessary to produce a prescribed measured effect and the field remains empirical and fallible. Conflicting data on physical, physiological and biochemical measures may be widely observed in studies of the effect of a reduced, maintained, increased or terminated stimulus in a subject undertaking training (4,5,9-12,14). In clinical studies definition of a threshold level of training for reducing such symptoms as sedentary afflictions (8,16), high plasma cholesterol (18) or moderate to medium hypertension (6,20) is still qualitative, expressed variously, in units of distance covered, time spent, or intensity of effort in training and a complex periodisation system specifying the allocation of training time to various levels of activity and relative rest/detraining. Without a theory of training, such empirical investigations remain imprecise and their conclusions speculative and argumentative. A unique feature of the new theory is the proposal of an appropriate quantitative, unit measure of training which must be defined and adopted so that quantitative study of the training response to a stimulus may be unambiguously conducted. The idea will be developed and rationalised further in this paper.


Training Stimulus Metabolic Intensity Training Response World Record High Plasma Cholesterol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Banister, E.W., T.W. Calvert, M.V. Savage, and T.M. Bach. A systems model of training for athletic performance. Aust J. Sports Med. 7:57–61, 1975.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Booth, F. Effects of endurance exercise on cytochrome c turnover in skeletal muscle. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 301:431–439, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Calvert, T.W., E.W. Banister, M.V. Savage, and T.M. Bach. A systems model of the effects of training on physical performance. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybernet. 6: 94–102, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Costill, D.L., R. Thomas, R.A. Goldbergs, D. Pascoe, C. Lambert, S. Barr, and W.J. Fink. Actaptations to swimming training: influence of training volume. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 23: 371–377, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coyle, E.F., W.H. Martin, D.R Sinacore, M.J. Joyner, J.M. Hagberg, and J.O. Holloszy. Time course of loss of adaptations after stopping prolonged intense endurance training. J. Appl Physiol. 57:1857–1864, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    DiCarlo, S.E., H.L. Collins, M.G. Howard, C-Y. Chen, T.J. Scislo, and R.D. Patil. Postexertional hypotension: a brief review. Sports Med. Train. Rehab. 5: 17–27, 1994.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dudley, G.A., W.M. Abraham, and R.L. Terjung. Influence of exercise intensity and duration on biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle. J. Appl. Physiol. 53: 844–850, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ehsani, A.A., D.R. Biello, J. Schult, B.E. Sobel, and J.O. Holloszy. Improvement of left ventricular contractile function by exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 7: 350–358, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hickson, R.C., C. Foster, M.L. Pollock, T.M. Galassi, and S. Rich. Reduced training intensities and loss of aerobic power, endurance and cardiac growth. J. Appl. Physiol. 58: 492–499, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hickson, R.C., and M.A. Rosenkoetter. Reduced training frequencies and maintenance of increased aerobic power. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 13: 13–16, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Houmard, J.A., T. Hortobagyi, R.A. Johns, N.J. Bruno, C.C. Nute, M.H. Shinebarger, and J.W. Welborn. Effect of short-term training cessation on performance measures in distance runners. Int. J. Sports Med. 13: 572–576, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kirwan, J.P., D.L. Costill, M.G. Flynn, J.B. Mitchell, W.J. Fink, P.D. Neufer, and J. A. Houmard. Physiological responses to successive days of intense training in competitive swimmers. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 20:255–259, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mader, A.J. A transcription-translation activation feedback circuit as a function of protein degradation. J. Theor. Biol. 134: 135–157, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McConell, G.K., D.L. Costill, J.J. Widrick, M.S. Hickey, H Tanaka, and P.B. Gastin. Reduced training volume and intensity maintain aerobic capacity but not performance in distance runners. Int. J. Sports Med. 14:33–37, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morton, R.H., J.R. Fitz-Clarke, and E.W. Banister. Modeling human performance in running. J. Appl. Physiol. 69:1171–1177, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saltin, B., B. Blomquist, J.H. Mitchell, R.L. Johnson, K. Wildenhall, and C.B. Chapman. Response to submaximal and maximal exercise after bed rest and training. Circulation 38: supp 7, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shephard, R.J. Intensity, duration and frequency of exercise as determinants of the response to a training regime. vInt. zeitsch. agnew Physiol. 26: 272–278, 1969.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Superko, H.R. Exercise training, serum lipids and lipoprotein particles: is there a change in threshold? Med Sci. Sports Exerc. 23:667–685, 1991.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Terjung, R.L. The turnover of cytochrome c in different skeletal muscle fiber types of the rat. Biochem. J. 178: 569–574, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tipton, C. In: Exercise and Spots Science Reviews, vol. 19, edited by J.O. Holloszy. Baltimore: William and Wilkins, 1991, pp. 447–505.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wasserman, K., J.E. Hanson, D.Y. Sue, and B.J. Whipp. Principles of Exercise Testing and Interpretation. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1987.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Whipp, B.J., J.A. Davis, F. Torres, and K. Wasserman. A test to determine parameters of aerobic function during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 50: 217–221.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. W. Banister
    • 1
  • R. H. Morton
    • 1
  • J. R. Fitz-Clarke
    • 1
  1. 1.School of KinesiologySimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations