Advertisement

Blood Flow Regulation During Exercise in Man

  • Niels H. Secher
  • Bengt Saltin
Chapter

Abstract

Responses to exercise with one and several muscle groups allows for evaluation of integrative aspects of human physiology. One such area which has received much attention is the cardiovascular system. Exercise is an effective intervention as it not only brings various components of the system to function at its upper limits, but also gives clues to which variables that are primarily regulated. The focus here will be on muscle mass involvement in the exercise and the interplay between oxygen delivery and blood pressure.

Keywords

Mean Arterial Blood Pressure Sympathetic Nerve Activity Muscle Blood Flow High Work Rate Anaerobic Work Capacity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Andersen, P., and B. Saltin, B. Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man. J. Physiol. Lond. 366:233–249, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Åstrand, P.-O., and B. Saltin. Maximal oxygen uptake and heart rate in various types of muscular activity. J. Appl. Physiol. 16:977–981, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clausen, J.P. Circulatory adjustments to dynamic exercise and effects of physical training in normal subjects and in patients with coronary artery disease. Prog. Cardiovas. Dis. 18:459–495, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Donald, D.E., D.J. Rowlands, and D.A. Ferguson. Similarity of blood flow in the normal and the sympathectomiced dog limb during graded exercise. Clin. Res. 26:185–199, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gulløv, A.L., F. Pott, B.K. Koefoed, P. Peteren, and N.H. Secher. Transcranial Doppler determined cerebral arterial blood velocity during cycling in arterial fibrillation. XV Nor. Cong. Cardiol., Malmø, Sweden, 1995, p. 37.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hellström, G., G. Magnusson, B. Saltin, and N.G. Wahlgren. Cerebral haemodynamic effects of physical exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (abstract). Nord. Neurol. Soc. 1994.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hermansen, L. Oxygen transport during exercise in human subjects. Acta Physiol. Scand. Supp. 299:1–104, 1973.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Holmgren, A. Circulatory changes during muscular work in man. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 8: suppl. 24., 1956.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim, C.K., S. Strange, J. Bangsbo, and B. Saltin. Skeletal muscle perfusions in electrically induced dynamic exercise in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 153; 279–287, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Magnusson, G., L. Kaijser, C. Sylven, K.-E. Karlberg, B. Isberg, and B. Saltin. Peak skeletal muscle perfusion is maintained in patients with chronic heart failure. In press 1995.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pawelczyk, J.A., B. Hanel, R.A. Pawelczyk, J. Warberg, and N.H. Secher. Leg vasoconstriction during dynamic exercise with reduced cardiac output. J. Appl. Physiol. 73:1838–1846, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Richardson, R.S., D.C. Poole, D.R. Knight, S.S. Kurdak, M.C. Hogan, B. Grassi, E.C. Johnson, K.F. Kendrick, B.K. Erickson, and P.D. Wagner. High muscle blood flow in man: is maximal O2 extraction compromised? J. Appl Physiol. 75:1911–1916, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Richter, E.A., B. Kiens, M. Hargreaves, and M. Kjær. Effects of arm-cranking on leg blood flow and noradrenaline spillover during leg exercise in man. Acta Physiol Scand. 144:9–14, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rowell, L.B., B. Saltin, B. Kiens, and N.J. Christensen. Is peak quadriceps blood flow in humans even higher during exercise with hypoxemia. Am. J. Physiol. 251:H1038–H1044, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rørdam P., H.L. Olesen, J. Sindrup, and N.H. Secher. Effect of epidural anaesthesia on dorsal pedis arterial diameter and blood flow. Clin Physiol 15: 143–149, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saltin, B. Aerobic and anaerobic work capacity at an altitude of 2,250 meters. In: Proc. Symp. on Physical Performance at Altitude, edited by U. Luft, 1967, pp. 97–102.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saltin, B. Malleability of the system in overcoming limitations: functional elements. J. Exp. Biol. 115: 345–354, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saltin, B. Maximal oxygen uptake; limitation and malleability. In: International Perspectives in Exercise Physiology, edited by K. Nazar, R.L. Terjung, H. Kaciuba-Uscilko, and L. Budohoski. Champaign, USA: Human Kinetics, 1990, pp. 26–40.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saltin, B., and P.D. Gollnick. Skeletal muscle adaptability: significance for metabolism and performance. In: Handbook of Physiology: Skeletal Muscle, sect. 10, edited by L.D. Peachey, R.H. Adrian, and S.R. Geiger. Bethesda, USA: Amer. Physiol. Soc., 1983, pp 555–631.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Savard, G.K., E.A. Richter, S. Strange, B. Kiens, N.J. Christensen, and B. Saltin. Norepinephrine spillover from skeletal muscle during exercise in humans: role of muscle mass. Am. J. Physiol. 257:H 1812–H1818, 1989.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schmidt T.A., H. Bundgaard, H.L. Olesen, N.H. Secher, and K. Kjeldsen. Digoxin affects potassium homeostasis during exercise in patients with heart failure. Cardiovas. Res. 29: 506–511, 1995.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Secher, N.H., J.P. Clausen, K. Klausen, I. Noer, and J. Trap-Jensen. Central and regional circulatory effects of adding arm exercise to leg exercise. Acta Physiol. Scand. 100:288–297, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Secher, N.H., J. Jacobsen, D.B. Friedman, and S. Matzen. Bradycardia during reversible hypovolaemic shock: associated endocrine changes and clinical implications. Clin. Exp. Pharm. Physiol. 19:733–743, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Secher, N.H., and Oddershede, I. Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming and bicycling. In: Swimming II, edited by L. Lewillie and J.P. Clarys. Baltimore, USA: Univ. Park Press, 1975, pp 137–142.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Secher, N.H., N. Ruberg-Larsen, R.A. Binkhorst, and F. Bonde-Petersen. Maximal oxygen uptake during arm and combined arm plus leg exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 36:315–318, 1974.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sinoway L.I., T.I. Musch, J.R. Minotti, and R. Zelis. Enhanced maximal metabolic vasodilatation in the dominant forearms of tennis players. J. Appl. Physiol. 61:673–678, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sinoway, L., and S. Prophet. Skeletal muscle metaboreceptor stimulation opposes peak metabolic vasodilation in humans. Cir. Res. 66:1576–1586, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sinoway L.I., J. Shenberger, J.S. Wilson, D. McLaughlin, T. Musch, and R.A. Zelis. 30-day forearm work protocol increases maximal forearm blood flow. J. Appl. Physiol. 62:1063–1067, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Snell, P.G., W.H. Martin, J.C. Burckey, and CG. Blomqvist. Maximal vascular leg conductance in trained and untrained men. J. Appl. Physiol. 62:606–610, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Strandell, T., and J.T. Shepherd. The effect in humans of increased sympathetic activity on the blood flow to active muscles. Acta Med. Scand. Supp. 472:146–167, 1967.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Strange, S., N.H. Secher, J.A. Pawelczyk, J. Kappakka, N.J. Christensen, J.H. Mitchell, and B. Saltin. Neural control of cardiovascular responses and of ventilation during dynamic exercise in man. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 470:693–704, 1993.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Taylor, H.L., E. Buskirk, and A. Henchel. Maximal oxygen intake as an objective measure of cardiorespiratory performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 8:73–80, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thompson, L.P., and D.E. Mohrman. Blood flow and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle during sympathetic stimulation. Am. J. Physiol. 245:H66–H71, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wieling, W., and J.J. van Lieshout. Circulatory adaptation upon standing. In: New Trends in Autonomic Nervous System Research, edited by M. Yoshikawa, M. Uono, H. Tanabe, and S. Ishikawa. Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, 1991, pp. 200–204.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Williamson, J.W., J.H. Mitchell, H.L. Olesen, P. Raven, and N.H. Secher. Reflex increase in blood pressure induced by leg compression in man. J. Physiol (Lond.) 475: 351–357, 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niels H. Secher
    • 1
  • Bengt Saltin
    • 1
  1. 1.The Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre Department of AnaesthesiaRigshospitalet University of CopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations