• J. Michael Fuller
  • John R. Hubbard


Cardiovascular diseases are very common and can be devastating. Because the cardiovascular system has important interactions with many other organ systems, it is imperative to obtain a careful history and physical examination. In addition, the New York Heart Association states there are several key elements to be considered, including:
  1. 1.

    Underlying etiology (atherosclerotic, hypertensive, congenital)

  2. 2.

    Anatomic abnormalities (cardiac muscle, valves, pericardium)

  3. 3.

    Physiological disturbances (pump failure, ischemia, arrhythmia)

  4. 4.

    Extent of functional disability



Atrial Fibrillation Calcium Channel Antagonist Acute Pericarditis Somatization Disorder Myocardial Cell Death 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Michael Fuller
    • 1
    • 3
  • John R. Hubbard
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care MedicineUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham HospitalBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Division of Addiction Medicine, Department of PsychiatryVanderbilt University School of MedicineNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.The Heart and Lung Group of SavannahSavannahUSA

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