Little’s Formula and Extensions

  • Muhammad El-Taha
  • Shaler StidhamJr.
Part of the International Series in Operations Research & Management Science book series (ISOR, volume 11)


Little’s formula, L = λW, is one of the most well-known and most useful conservation laws in queueing theory and stochastic systems. It states that the time average number of units in system equals the arrival rate of units × the average time-in-system per unit.


Busy Period Queueing System Schedule Rule Congestion Cost Basic Inequality 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad El-Taha
    • 1
  • Shaler StidhamJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Southern MaineUSA
  2. 2.University of North Carolina at Chapel HillUSA

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