Hypertension and Heart Failure

  • M. Gary Nicholls
  • A. Mark Richards
  • Evan J. Begg
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 432)


Heart failure in Western countries presents major problems. Approximately 1–3% of the population, fewer in young and middle-life, and more in the later decades of life, are said to suffer from heart failure1–3. Evidence is that the prevalence rate is increasing with time4,5. Longevity, though improved by some treatments6, notably angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, remains a matter of months once clinically severe hart failure is established7. Furthermore, functional status and wellbeing by most criteria are more adversely affected by heart failure than by various forms of arthritis or chronic lung disease, for example8. From an economic point of view, heart failure accounts for approximately 1–2% of total health care budgets in Western countries3,9–11, and is likely to increase with time.


Heart Failure Congestive Heart Failure Antihypertensive Drug Treatment Systolic Hypertension Diastolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Gary Nicholls
    • 1
  • A. Mark Richards
    • 1
  • Evan J. Begg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineChristchurch HospitalChristchurchNew Zealand

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