Advertisement

Physiological Versus Pathological Hypertrophy

The Athlete and the Hypertensive
  • Cesare Cuspidi
  • Laura Lonati
  • Lorena Sampieri
  • Gastone Leonetti
  • Alberto Zanchetti
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 432)

Abstract

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in humans is a common adaptive process induced by different physiological and pathological stimuli.

Keywords

Hypertensive Patient Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Diastolic Function Cardiac Hypertrophy Left Ventricular Mass Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    E.D. Frohlich, C. Apstein, A.M. Chobanian, R.B. Ducreux, H.P. Dustan, V. Dzau, F. Fouad Tarazi, M.J. Horan, M. Marcus, B. Massie, M.R. Pfeffer, R.W. Re, E.J. Roccella, D. Savage and C. Shub. The heart in hypertension. N Engl J Med 1992;327:998–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L.M. Shapiro. Physiological left ventricular hypertrophy. Br Heart J 1984;52:130–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Leonetti and C. Cuspidi. The heart and vascular changes in hypertension. J Hypertens 1995; 13(suppl 2):S29–S34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.E. Otterstad, O. Smireth and S.E. Kjeldsen. Hypertension left ventricular hypertrophy: pathophysiology assessment and treatment. Blood Pressure 1996;5:5–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.D. Savage. Overall risk of left ventricular hypertrophy secondary to systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1987;60:81–121.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P.N. Casale, R.B. Devereux, M. Milner, G. Zullo, G.A. Harshfield and T.G. Pickering. Value of echocardiog-raphic left ventricular mass in predicting cardiovascular morbid events in hypertensive men. Ann Intern Med 1986;105:173–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Dahlöf, J.M. Cruickshank and P.R. Danby. Managing left ventricular hypertrophy in primary care. Science Press, London, 1993.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    U. Sechtem. The athlete’s heart revisited. Eur Heart J 1996;17:1138–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Levy, R.J. Garrison, D.D. Savage, W.B. Kannel and W.P. Castelli. Left ventricular mass and incidence of coronary heart disease in an elderly cohort: the Framingham Heart study. Ann Intern Med 1989; 110:101–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Levy, R.J. Garrison, D.D. Savage, W.B. Kannel and W.P. Castelli. Prognostic implications of echocardiog-raphically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart study. N Engl J Med 1990;332:1561–1566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.D. Savage, R.J. Garrison and W.B. Kannel. The spectrum of left ventricular hypertrophy in a general population sample: the Framingham study. Circulation 1987;75(suppl I):26–33.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Parati, G. Pomidossi, F. Albini, D. Malaspina and G. Mancia. Relationship of 24-hour blood pressure mean and variability to severity of target organ damage in hypertension. J Hypertens 1987;5:93–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.T. Weber and C.G. Brilla. Pathological hypertrophy and cardiac interstitium: fibrosis and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Circulation 1991;83:1849–1865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    F.M. Fouad Tarazi, M. Imamura, E.L. Bravo, G. Rossi, H.K. Nagi, W.W. Lin, M. Cressman and P. Wicker. Differences in left ventricular structural and functional changes between pheochromocytoma and essential hypertension. Role of elevated circulating catecholamines. Am J Hypertens 1992;5:134–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P.R. Liebson, G. Grandits, R. Prineas, S. Dianzumba, J.M. Flack, J.A. Cutler, R. Grimm and J. Stamler. Echocardiographic correlates of left ventricular structure among 844 mildly hypertensive men and women in the treatment of mild hypertension study (THOMS). Circulation 1993;87:476–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Zabalgoitia. Left ventricular mass and function in primary hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1996;9:55S-59S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Gigli, F. Lattanzi, A.R. Lucarini, E. Picano, A. Genovesi-Ebert, C. Marabotti, R. Zunino, A. Mazzarisi, L. Landini, M. Iannetti and D. Distante. Normal ultrasonic myocardial reflectivity in hypertensive patients. A tissue characterization study. Hypertension 1993;20:329–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    B.J. Maron. Structural features of the athlete heart as defined by echocardiography. JACC 1986;7:190–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Fagard, A. Aubert, J. Staessen, E.V. Eynde, L. Vanhees and A. Amery. Cardiac structure and function in cyclists and runners. Comparative echocardiographic study. Br Heart J 1984;52:124–129.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Morganroth, B.J. Maron, L.W. Hentry and S.E. Epstein. Comparative left ventricular dimensions in trained athletes. Ann Intern Med 1975;82:521–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.C. Longhurst, A.R. Kelly, W.J. Gonyee and J.H. Mitchell. Chronic training with static and dynamic exercise cardiovascular adaptation and response to exercise. Circ Res 1981;48(suppl 1): 171–178.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.C. Longhurst, A.R. Kelly, W.J. Gonyee and J.H. Mitchell. Echocardiographic left ventricular masses in distance runners and weight lifters. J Appl Physiol 1980;48:154–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. Miki, Y. Yokota, T. Seo and M. Yokoyama. Echocardiographic findings in 104 professional cyclists with follow-up study. Am Heart J 1994;127:898–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Spirito, A. Pelliccia, M.A. Proschass, M. Granata, A. Spataro, P. Bellone, G. Caselli, A. Biffi, C. Vecchio and B.M. Maron. Morphology of the athlete’s heart assessed by echocardiography in 947 elite athletes representing 27 sports. Am J Cardiol 1994;74:898–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Pelliccia, B.J. Maron, F. Culasso, A. Spataro and G. Caselli. Athlete’s heart in women. JAMA 1996;276: 211–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Nishimura, Y. Yamada and C. Kawai. Echocardiographic evaluation of long term effects of exercise on left ventricular hypertrophy and function in professional bicyclists. Circulation 1980;61:832–840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. Lattanzi, U. Di Bello, E. Picano, M.T. Caputo, L. Talarico, C. Di Muro, L. Landini, G. Santoro, C. Giusti and A. Distante. Normal ultrasonic myocardial reflectivity in athletes with increased left ventricular mass: a tissue characterization study. Circulation 1992;85:1828–1834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Fiorentini, C. Galli, G. Tamburini, P. Moruzzi, M. Berti, S. Riva and M.D. Guazzi. Combined hemodynamic overload of the left and right ventricles as a possible cause of interventricular septum preponderance in high blood pressure. Am Heart J 1988; 116:509–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. Cuspidi, L. Sampieri, L. Angioni, L. Boselli, R. Bragato, G. Leonetti and A. Zanchetti. Right ventricular wall thickness and function in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy: echo-Doppler study. J Hypertens 1989;7(suppl 6):S108–S109.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    B.D. Nunez, F.H. Messerli, C. Amodeo, G.E. Gara vaglia, R.E. Schmieder and E.D. Frohlich. Biventricular cardiac hypertrophy in essential hypertension. Am Heart J 1987;114:813–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    E. Enriksen, J. Landelins, L. Wesslen, H. Arnell, C. Nyström-Rosander, T. Kangro, T. Jonason, C. Rolf, C. Liddel, E. Hammarstrom, I. Ringqvist and G. Friman. Echocardiographic right and left ventricular measurements in male elite endurance athletes. Eur Heart J 1996; 17:1121–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Cuocolo, F.L. Sax, J.E. Brush, B.J. Maron, S. Bacharach and R.O. Borrow. Left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired diastolic filling in essential hypertension. Circulation 1990;81:978–986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    E. Grossman, S. Oren and F. Messerli. Left ventricular filling and stress response pattern in essential hypertension. Am J Med 1991;97:502–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. De Simone, R.B. Devereux, M.J. Roman, A. Ganau, P.S. Saba, M.H. Alderman and J.H. Laragh. Assessment of left ventricular function by midwall fractional shortening end systolic stress relation in human hypertension. JACC 1994;23:1444–1451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Verdecchia, G. Schillaci, M. Guerrieri, F. Boldrini, C. Gatteschi, G. Benemio and C. Porcellati. Prevalence and determinants of left ventricular diastolic filling abnormalities in an unselected hypertensive population. Eur Heart J 1990;11:679–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    R.C. Harizi, J. A. Bianco and J.S. Alpert. Diastolic function of heart in clinical cardiology. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:99–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    A.W. De Maria, T.W. Wisenbaugh, M.D. Smith, M.R. Harrison and M.R. Berk. Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic dysfunction. Circulation 1991;84(suppl I):288–295.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M.J. Lim and A.J. Buda. Doppler echocardiography in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. Curr Opinion Cardiol 1991;6:937–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    C.B. Granger, M.K. Karimeddini, V.E. Smith, H.R. Shapiro, A.M. Katz and A.L. Riba. Rapid ventricular filling in left ventricular hypertrophy: I. Physiologic hypertrophy. JACC 1985;5:862–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    S.D. Colan, S.P. Sanders, D. MacPherson and K.M. Borrow. Left ventricular diastolic function in elite athletes with physiologic cardiac hypertrophy. JACC 1985;6:545–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    C. Cuspidi, L. Sampieri, L. Boselli, L. Angioni, R. Bragato, G. Leonetti and A. Zanchetti. Left ventricular diastolic function in athletes and hypertensives with mild cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiology 1991;78:278–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    C. Cuspidi, L. Lonati, L. Sampieri, G. Leonetti and A. Zanchetti. Similarities and differences in structural and functional changes of left ventricle and carotid arteries in young borderline hypertensives and in athletes. J Hypertens 1996;14:759–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    F.G. Dunn and S.D. Pringle. Left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia in systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1987;60:191–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. Zanchetti, P. Sleight and W.H. Birkenhager. Evaluation of organ damage in hypertension. J Hypertens 1993;11:875–882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    L. Lonati, C. Cuspidi, L. Sampieri, T. Zaro, S. Pelizzoli, G. Pontiggia, G. Leonetti and A. Zanchetti. Lack of correlation between left ventricular mass and diameter of extramural coronary arteries in hypertensive patients: a transthoracic echocardiographic study. Eight Eur Meeting on Hypertension, Milan 1997 (abstract).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    J.M. Cruickshank, J. Lewis, E.U. Moor and C. Dodd. Reversibility of left ventricular hypertrophy by different types of antihypertensive therapy. J Human Hypertens 1992;6:85–95.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    B. Dahlöf, K. Pennert and L. Hansson. Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients: a meta-analysis of 109 treatment studies. Am J Hypertens 1992;5:95–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    R.E. Schmieder, P. Martus and R. Klingheil. Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension: a meta-analysis of randomized double blind studies. JAMA 1996;275:1507–1513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    A.A. Ehsani, J.M. Hagberg and R.C. Hickson. Rapid changes in left ventricular dimensions and mass in response to physical conditioning and deconditioning. Am J Cardiol 1978;42:52–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    B.J. Maron, A. Pelliccia, A. Spataro and M. Granata. Reduction in left ventricular wall thickness after deconditioning in highly trained Olympic athletes. Br Heart J 1993;69:125–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    C. Giannattasio, G. Seravalle, B.M. Cattaneo, C. Cuspidi, L. Sampieri, G.B. Bolla, G. Grassi and G. Mancia. Effect of detraining on the cardiopulmonary reflex in professional runners and hammer throwers. Am J Cardiol 1992;69:677–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M.E. Safar, X. Girerd and S. Laurent. Structural changes of large conduit arteries in hypertension. J Hypertens 1996;14:545–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    M.J. Roman, T.G. Pickering, J.C. Schwartz, R. Pini and R.B. Devereux. Association of carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy. JACC 1995;25:83–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    C. Cuspidi, L. Boselli, R. Bragato, L. Lonati, L. Sampieri, M. Bocciolone, G. Leonetti and A. Zanchetti. Echo-cardiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of cardiac and vascular hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension. Cardiology 1992;80:305–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    A.P. Hughes, A.M. Sinclair, G. Geroulakos, J. Mayet, J. Mackay, M. Shahi, S. Thoen, A. Nicolaides and P.J. Sever. Structural changes in the cardiovascular system of untreated essential hypertensives. Blood Pressure 1995;4:42–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    C. Cuspidi, M. Marabini, L. Lonati, L. Sampieri, G. Comerio, S. Pelizzoli, G. Leonetti and A. Zanchetti. Cardiac and carotid structure in patients with established hypertension and white-coat hypertension. J Hypertens 1995;13:1707–1711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    J.D. Cameron and A.M. Dart. Exercise training increases total systemic arterial compliance in humans. Am J Physiol 1994;266:H693–H703.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cesare Cuspidi
    • 1
  • Laura Lonati
    • 1
  • Lorena Sampieri
    • 1
  • Gastone Leonetti
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alberto Zanchetti
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro di Fisiologia Clinica e Ipertensione Ospedale Maggiore, IRCCSIstituto di Clinica Medica Generale e Terapia Medica, Università di MilanoMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Centro Auxologico ItalianoIRCCSMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations