Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning

  • Albert Ting-pat So
  • Wai Lok Chan
Part of the The International Series on Asian Studies in Computer and Information Science book series (ASIS, volume 5)


Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning, or simply HVAC, can be considered one of the most important services in modern buildings. In the tropical countries, external temperature can be around 35°C on average with a relative humidity up to 90% – 100% in summer. In countries near to the poles, outdoor temperature can be as low — 30°C in winter or even lower. Human beings just cannot work efficiently under such an environment. The major contribution of HVAC systems to the mankind is the fine control to arrive at a comfortable indoor environment for people to work and live. Furthermore, a controlled environment is often a necessity for industrial manufacturing plants. According to ASHRAE, thermal comfort is that condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. Comfort also includes behavioral actions initiated by the conscious mind and guided by thermal and moisture sensations to reduce discomfort. This book is about building systems and hence, the focus is placed upon comfort air-conditioning while industrial air-conditioning is outside our scope. In this chapter, the concept of human comfort, the basic structure and different types of HVAC systems will be discussed. As most of the control technologies discussed in this book are on cooling, the emphasis has not been placed upon heating and ventilation.


Thermal Comfort Predicted Mean Vote Evaporative Heat Loss Human Comfort Human Thermal Comfort 
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  1. [1]
    ASHRAE Inc., 1997 ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, 1997, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Fanger P.O, eds. Thermal Comfort, Robert K. Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Ting-pat So
    • 1
    • 3
  • Wai Lok Chan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Johnson Controls Intelligent Building Research CentreCity University of Hong KongChina
  2. 2.Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityChina
  3. 3.City University of Hong KongChina

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