Biobehavioral Influences on Respiratory Immunity

  • Joachim Kugler


The upper respiratory system of humans consists of the nose, paranasal sinus, oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. The upper respiratory tract forms an important entrance for pathogens and respiratory allergens, for the following reasons:
  1. 1.

    An adult breathes about 12,000 liters of air per day.

  2. 2.

    Solid and fluid food passes through the oral cavity and pharynx, which is the common part of the respiratory and digestive tract.

  3. 3.

    The moist and warm milieu in the upper respiratory tract offers an ideal climate for microorganisms.



Common Cold Secretory Component Systemic Immune System sIgA Concentration Local Immune System 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joachim Kugler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health Sciences/Public HealthMedical School DresdenDresdenGermany

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