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Opioid Peptide Production by the Immune System

  • Cobi J. Heijnen
  • Annemieke Kavelaars

Abstract

The nervous, endocrine, and immune systems are intimately connected through mutually acting regulatory systems. The immune system is highly specialized in its recognition of and reaction to specific antigens from internal as well as external sources. The brain is specialized in recognition and response to internal and external emotional and physical stimuli. Both systems have their own characteristic responses to these stimuli. However, the response patterns of the two systems are partly overlapping, that is, they both produce mediators such as cytokines and neuropeptides that can act as communication pathways for the two systems. Moreover, the immune system expresses receptors or binding sites for every neurotransmitter or hormone tested so far, thereby enabling the immune system to recognize and to respond to neuroendocrine signals (Blalock & Smith, 1985).

Keywords

Opioid Receptor Opioid Peptide Delta Opioid Receptor POMC mRNA Human Peripheral Blood Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cobi J. Heijnen
    • 1
  • Annemieke Kavelaars
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ImmunologyUniversity Hospital for Children and Youth, “Het Wilhelmina Kinderziekenhuis”UtrechtThe Netherlands

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