Occurrence of Scandium and Yttrium in Organisms

  • Chaim T. Horovitz
Part of the Biochemistry of the Elements book series (BOTE, volume 13A)


The five-kingdom system arrayed the evolutionary process of the three great levels of life: the Prokaryotae (= Monera), the eukaryotic microorganisms, and their derivatives Protoctista and the eukaryotic larger forms, i.e., Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia (Margulis and Schwartz, 1988). New concepts in studying the diversity of organisms have provided insights into the relationships that exist between Prokaryotae and Eukaryotae. The study of the body composition of various organisms refers to four main groups: water, proteins, fats, and minerals. Inasmuch as the mean composition of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur in various groups of organisms is relatively similar, the remainder of chemical elements contained in the ash residue may vary between 3–5% in Arthropoda, pisces, and seed plants, but may reach up to 24% in Coelenterata, brown algae, and marine plankton (Bowen, 1979).


Epiphytic Lichen Rare Earth Element Yttrium Concentration Pelagic Clay Trace Element Analytical Chemistry 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaim T. Horovitz
    • 1
  1. 1.RehovotIsrael

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