Occurrence of Scandium and Yttrium in Nature

  • Chaim T. Horovitz
Part of the Biochemistry of the Elements book series (BOTE, volume 13A)


Scandium, yttrium, and other rare earth element (REE) analyses have received increasing attention in recent decades due to the growing awareness of environmental pollution and their expanded uses in science, medicine, and technology. Few books were dedicated solely to these elements (Kubach, 1974; Horovitz, 1975; Borisenko and Komissarova, 1989). Recent books on REE (Henderson, 1984; Gschneidner and Eyring, 1978-1995; Gmelin, 1988;Lipin and McKay, 1989) and on other trace elements (TE) contain additional information on scandium and yttrium. Such are those on biogeochemistry (Dobrovolsky, 1994), geochemistry (Bowen, 1979; Henderson, 1984;Fortescue, 1985; Richardson and McSween, Jr, 1989;Kabata-Pendias and Pendias, 1992), the atmosphere (Bowen, 1985; Nriagu and Davidson, 1986; Cox, 1995), and the hydrosphere (Institute of Oceanography, 1983; Salomons and Förstner, 1984; Stumm, 1987;Baturin, 1988; Drewer, 1988).


Rare Earth Element Sewage Sludge Enrichment Factor Neural Tube Defect Manganese Nodule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaim T. Horovitz
    • 1
  1. 1.RehovotIsrael

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