Advertisement

History of Yttrium and Scandium

  • Chaim T. Horovitz
Chapter
  • 204 Downloads
Part of the Biochemistry of the Elements book series (BOTE, volume 13A)

Abstract

The history of the chemical elements has a very long past, which is intimately connected with the origin of the universe, its chemical evolution, the inorganic and organic origin of our planet, and also with the origin and evolution of life.

Keywords

Rare Earth Chemical Element Fission Product Periodic System Atomic Weight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alimarin, I. R, 1959. Determination and separation of scandium with N-benzyl-phenyl hydroxyl-amine, Zay. Lab. 25:1435–1437 (Russian).Google Scholar
  2. Angyal, S. J., 1972. Complexes of carbohydrates with metal cations, Aust. J. Chem. 25:1957–1966.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous. 1946. Availability of radioactive isotopes, Science 103:697–705.Google Scholar
  4. Ariel, I.M., 1964. Radioactive isotopes for adjuvant cancer therapy, Arch. Surg. 89:244–249.Google Scholar
  5. Arrhenius, C. A., 1785. Method for the preparation of saltpeter, Kgl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. pp. 61–67.Google Scholar
  6. Arroi, W. J., 1948. Tracers in biochemical investigations. Analyst, 73:660–662.Google Scholar
  7. Artini, E., 1915. Two minerals from Baveno with REE weibite and bazzite, Atti. Acad. Lincei 24:313–319 (Italian).Google Scholar
  8. Aston, F. W, 1923. Isotopes, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 42:935.Google Scholar
  9. Auer von Welsbach, C., 1907. The elements of the yttrium group, Monatsh Chem. 27:935–945 (German).Google Scholar
  10. Auer von Welsbach, H., 1927. Revision of the atomic weight of yttrium and dysprosium. PhD thesis, München (German).Google Scholar
  11. Bachem, C., 1907. The pharmacology of several rare earths, Arch. Int. Pharm. Ther. 17:363–386 (German).Google Scholar
  12. Beck, G., 1937. Microchemical reactions of scandium, Mikrochim. Acta 2:9–12 (German).Google Scholar
  13. Beck, G., 1948. The biochemistry of scandium and its removal as phytate, Mikrochem. 34:62–66 (German).Google Scholar
  14. Beck, G., 1950. Precipitation reactions of aneurin pyrophosphate with scandium and heavy metals, Anal. Chim. Acta 4:21–22.Google Scholar
  15. Becquerel, J., 1908. A phenomenon attributable to positive electrons, in the spark spectrum of yttrium, C.R. Acad. Paris 146:683–685 (French).Google Scholar
  16. Benner, R. C., 1910. The fractionation of the yttrium earths by means of the succinates, PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin at Madison.Google Scholar
  17. Bersin, T., 1963. Biochemie der Mineral-und Spurenelemente, Akademische Verlagsgesselschaft, Frankfurt/M (German).Google Scholar
  18. Berzelius, J., 1813–1814. Essay on the cause of chemical proportions and on circumstances relating to them, together with a short and easy method of expressing them, Ann. Philosophy, 51–62, 93–106,244–255,353–365,443–455.Google Scholar
  19. Berzelius, J., 1816. Investigation on the composition of the gadolinite, J. Chem. Physik 16:404–422 (German).Google Scholar
  20. Bonardi, J. P., and James, C., 1915. The separation of yttrium from the yttrium earths, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 37:2642–2645.Google Scholar
  21. Borisenko, L. E, 1963. Scandium. Its Geochemistry and Mineralogy, English transl. Consultants Bureau, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Bomeman-Starinkevitch, I. D., Borovick, S. A., and Borovsky, I. B., 1941. Rare earth elements in plants and soils, Dokl. Akad Nauk SSSR 30:229–233 (Russian).Google Scholar
  23. Boroughs, H., Townsley, S. J., and Hiatt, R. W, 1957. The uptake, accumulation and loss of 91Y by marine fish and the importance of short-lived radionuclides by marine nuclides. Biol. Bull 111:352–357.Google Scholar
  24. Burkser, E. S., Gornyi, G. Ya, Ivantishin, N. N. and Kul’skaya, O. A., 1955. Data on the Geochemistry of Scandium, Izdadel’stvo Akademyi Nauk Ukrainy SSR, Kiev (Russian).Google Scholar
  25. Byelaya, M. P., and Borowik-Romanova, 1930. Cited by Bomeman-Starinkevitch et al., 1941.Google Scholar
  26. Carlson, O. N., Bare, D. W, Gibson, E. D., and Schmidt, E A., 1959. Growth of yttrium single crystals, in: Symposium on Newer Metals, ASTM Special Publ. No. 272Google Scholar
  27. Chargaff, E., and Green, C., 1947. On the inhibition of the thromboplastic effect, J. Biol. Chem. 173:263–270.Google Scholar
  28. Clarke, F. W, and Washington, H. S., 1924. Composition of the earth’s crust, US Geol. Sure Prof. Paper 127. Google Scholar
  29. Cleve, P. T., 1879. On scandium, C. T Acad. Sci. Paris 89:159; 419–422 (French).Google Scholar
  30. Cohran, K. W, Doull, J., Mazur, M., and DuBois, K. P., 1950. Acute toxicity of zirconium, columbium, strontium, lanthanum, cesium, tantalum, and yttrium, Arch. Ind. Hvg. Occup. Med. 1:637–650. Google Scholar
  31. Crawford, M. F., and Olson, N., 1949. Nuclear moments of 89Y, Phys. Rev. 76:1528. Crookes, W, 1886. On the fractionation of yttria, Chem. News 54:158–160.Google Scholar
  32. Crookes, W, 1898. The position of helium, argon and krypton in the system of elements, Z. Anal. Chem. 18:72–76 (German).Google Scholar
  33. Crookes, W, 1908. On scandium, Proc. Roy. Soc. 80A:516,541.Google Scholar
  34. Crookes, W, 1910. Scandium. Chem. News 101:49, 102:73–75, 85–87, 97–101; 98–274–277. CA 4:999–1000.Google Scholar
  35. Daane, A. H., 1961. Its preparation and properties, in: Rare Earths Research (E. V. Kleber, ed.), MacMillan Co, New York, pp. 261–268.Google Scholar
  36. Dershem, E. 1939. Photomicrographs of thin bone sections by the use of fluorescence x-radiation, Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. 25:6–10.Google Scholar
  37. Ding, M., 1927. The Pharmacology of Rare Earths, PhD thesis, University Würzburg (German).Google Scholar
  38. Doering, R. E, Tucker, W.D., and Stang, Jr., L. G., 1963. A simple device for milking high purity 90Y from 90Sr, J. Nucl. Med 4:54–59.Google Scholar
  39. Durbin, P. W, Hamilton, J. G., Williams, M. H., Gee, M. and Newman, R. H., 1956. Metabolism of the lanthanons in the rat, Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. Med. 91:78–85.Google Scholar
  40. Eberhard, G., 1908. The wide distribution of scandium on the earth, Sitzb. kgl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 21:404–426; 38:851–868. CA 2:3322–3323; 5:261.8 (German).Google Scholar
  41. Ekstrand, A. G., 1921. Lars Frederik Nilson,Almqvist and Wiksells Boktr., Stockholm.Google Scholar
  42. Erskine, J. R., Marinov, A., and Schiffer, J. E, 1966. Energy levels in 49Sc from 48Ca(3He, d)49Sc and other reactions proceeding from 48Ca, Phys. Rev. 142:633–637.Google Scholar
  43. Evans, C. H., 1989. The discovery of rare earth elements, Chem. Britain 25:880–882.Google Scholar
  44. Evans, C. H., 1990. Historical introduction, in: Biochemistry of the Lanthanides, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  45. Evans, W H., 1914. The influence of the carbonates of rare earths (Ce, La, Y) on growth and cell-division in Hyacinths, Biochem. J. 7:349–355.Google Scholar
  46. Fischer, W, and Bock, R., 1942. The production of pure scandium compounds, Z. anorg. algem. Chem. 249:146–197 (German).Google Scholar
  47. Fischer, W, Brünger, K., and Grieneisen, H., On the metallic scandium, Z. anorg. algem. Chem. 231:54–62 (German).Google Scholar
  48. Fowler, A., 1909. The spectrum of scandium and its relation to solar spectra, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 81A: 335–336.Google Scholar
  49. Frouin, A., and Mercier, V, 1913. Anti-coagulative action of rare earths on blood in vitro, C. R. Soc. Biol. 74:317–319 (French).Google Scholar
  50. Gadolin, J., 1794. Discovery of a black mineral at the mine Ytterby at Roslagen, Kgl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Hand!. pp. 137–155 (Swedish).Google Scholar
  51. Gadolin, J., 1796. A black heavy mineral Roslagen, Sweden, Crells Chem. Annal. 1:313–329 (German).Google Scholar
  52. Gmelins-Kraut’s Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, 1927. No. 39: Rare Earths Overview, Historical,Occurrence (C. Friedheim, ed.), Berlin (German).Google Scholar
  53. Gofman, J. W, 1949. Studies with colloids containing radioisotopes of yttrium, zirconium, columbium and lanthanum, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 34:305–312.Google Scholar
  54. Goldschmidt, V. M., and Peters, C., 1931. The geochemistry of scandium. Nachr. Ges. Wiss.,Göttingen,phys,Klasse, pp. 257–279 (German).Google Scholar
  55. Goudsmit, S., and Zeeman, P., 1924. The magnetic resolution of the scandium lines, Nature 114:432–433.Google Scholar
  56. Granit, R., 1966. Johan Gadolin, Levn. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Led. 166:700–718 (Swedish).Google Scholar
  57. Graul, E. H., and Hundeshagen, H., 1959. Investigations of 90Y metabolism, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. 5:243–252.Google Scholar
  58. Green, D. T., Errington, R. E, Boyd, E C., and Hopkins, N. J., 1953. Production of multi-curie -y-ray teletherapy sources, Nucleonics 11:29–37.Google Scholar
  59. Greinacher, E., 1981. History of rare earths applications, rare earths market today, in: Industrial Applications of Rare Earths Elements (G. A. Gschneidner, K. A., Jr., ed.), American Chemical Society, Washington, pp. 3–17.Google Scholar
  60. Grenet, H., and Drouin, H., 1927. The Rare Earths, Physiologic and Therapeutic Study, Martial, Paris (French).Google Scholar
  61. Gschneidner, K. A., Jr., and Eyring, L., eds. 1978–1995. Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, Vols. 1–20.Google Scholar
  62. Gschneidner, K. A., Jr., and Capellen, J, 1987. 1787–1987: Two Hundred Years of Rare Earths, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 1–32.Google Scholar
  63. Guinn, V. P., 1990. A short history of nuclear activation analysis, Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 40:1–7.Google Scholar
  64. Guthrie, J. W, and Blewer, R. S., 1972. Improved tuning of ion microprob using scandium thin film. targets, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43:654–656.Google Scholar
  65. Hamilton, J. G., 1944. Metabolism of fission products, Progress report USAEC, MDDC-1275.Google Scholar
  66. Hevesy, G., von, 1927. The Rare Earth Elements from the Standpoint of the Structure of Atoms, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (German).Google Scholar
  67. Hevesy, G., von, 1935. Artificial radioactivity of scandium, Nature 135:1051.Google Scholar
  68. Hibdon, C. Ir., Pool, M. L., and Kurbatov, J. D., 1945. Radioactive scandium, Phys. Rev. 67:289–295.Google Scholar
  69. Hiller, M. A., 1959. Physical and chemical properties of scandium and the rare earth elements, Univ. Microfilm LC No. 59–5054.Google Scholar
  70. Hjelt, E., and Tigerstedt, R., 1910. Joan Gadolin,1750–1852,in Memoriam, Hinzel, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  71. Hnatowich, D. J., Virzi, E, and Doherty, P. W, 1985. DTPA-DTPA-coupled and antibodies labeled with 90Y, J. Nucl. Med. 26:503–509.Google Scholar
  72. Höber, R., and Spaeth, R. A., 1914. The influence of rare earths elements on the contractibility of the muscle, Pfiügers Physiol. Ges. 159, 433–456 (German).Google Scholar
  73. Horovitz, C. T., 1965. Influence of scandium on higher plants, Naturwiss. 52:623–624 (German).Google Scholar
  74. Horovitz, C. T., 1995. 200 years of research and development of yttrium, J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes 12:153–160.Google Scholar
  75. Ishiwara, F., 1927. The influence of 58 various chemical compounds on animal cancer, Gann 21:1–18 (German).Google Scholar
  76. Ishiwara, E, 1928. The influence of different types of metals on mouse carcinoma, Ber. Ges. Physiol. Exper. Pharmakol. 49:615–620 (German).Google Scholar
  77. Jorgensen, C. K., 1988. Influence of rare earths on chemical understanding and classification, in: Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (K. A. Gschneidner, Jr., and L. Eyring, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol. 11, pp. 197–291.Google Scholar
  78. Jorpes, J. E., 1966. Jac. Berzelius, His Life and Work, Almqvist and Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  79. Kawin, B., 1953. Metabolism of radio-yttrium, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 45:230–231.Google Scholar
  80. Kidman, B., Tutt, M. L., and Vaughan, J. M., 1950. The retention and excretion of radioactive strontium and yttrium in the healthy rabbit, J. Pathol. Bakteriol. 62:209–227.Google Scholar
  81. King, A. S., 1921. The electric furnace spectrum of scandium, Astrophys. J. 54:28–44.Google Scholar
  82. Kogan, B. I., and Nazvanova, V. A., 1963. Scandium. An Economic Analysis. Izdatel’stvo Akademyi Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian).Google Scholar
  83. Komiyama, U., Matsumura, K., and Matsumoto, Y., 1992. Unprecedently fast hydrolysis of the RNA dinucleoside ApA and UpU by rare earth metal ions, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. pp. 640–641.Google Scholar
  84. Krieger, H. L., and Groche, D., 1960. Occurrence of 46Sc and 134Cs in radioactive fallout, Science 131:40–41.Google Scholar
  85. Kubach, I., ed., 1973. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, No. 39-Scandium. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim.Google Scholar
  86. Kurbatov, J. D., and Kurbatov, M. H., 1942. Isolation of radioactive yttrium and some of its properties in minute concentrations, J. Phys. Chem. 46:441–457.Google Scholar
  87. Kvalheim, A., and Strock, L. W, 1939. Spectrochemical determination of scandium in silicate rocks, Spectrochim. Acta 1:221–226.Google Scholar
  88. Kyker, G. C., and Anderson, E. B., eds., 1956. Rare Earth Elements in Biochemical and Medical Research. Oak Ridge.Google Scholar
  89. Lavrov, V. V, 1956. Accumulation of some chemical elements in fossil bones of vertebrates, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 108: 101 (Russian).Google Scholar
  90. Lenher, V., 1908. Yttrium earths, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 30:572–577.Google Scholar
  91. Lewin, R., Hart, H. E., Greenberg, J., Spencer, H., Stem, K. G., and Laszlo, D., 1954. Distribution of radioactive yttrium in normal and ascites-tumor bearing mice, and in cancer patients with serous effusions, J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 15:131–143.Google Scholar
  92. Lippmann, von, E. O., 1925. Some-rare residues of the ash of sugar industry products, Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 58:426 (German).Google Scholar
  93. Lisco, H. A., Brues, M., Finkel, H. P., and Grunderhauser, W, 1947. Carcinoma in rats following the feeding of radioactive yttrium, Metallurgical Lab. Rep. CH-3830.Google Scholar
  94. Love, B. 1960. The Technology of Scandium, Yttrium and the Rare Earths Metals. A Literature Survey, Research Chemicals Burbank.Google Scholar
  95. Lukens, H. S., 1913. Scandium in American wolframite, Thesis, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  96. Lux, H., 1938. The frequency of REE in animal bones, Z. anorg. algem. Chem. 240:21–30 (German).Google Scholar
  97. MacDonald, N. S., Lorick, P. C., and Petriello, L. I., 1957. Healing bone fractures and simultaneous administration of isotopes of sulfur, calcium and yttrium, Am. J Physiol. 191:185–188.Google Scholar
  98. Matignon, C., 1906. Yttrium chloride, Ann. Chim. Phys. 8:433–439 (German).Google Scholar
  99. Maxwell, L. C. and Bischoff, E, 1931. Studies in cancer chemotherapy. The effect of thorium, cerium, europium, yttrium, dysprosium, praseodymium, manganese and lead upon transplantable rat tumors, J Pharmacol. Exper. Ther. 43:61–70.Google Scholar
  100. Meisel, K., 1939. The crystallic structure of metallic scandium, Naturwiss. 14:230 (German).Google Scholar
  101. Meyer, R. J., 1905. Bibliography on REE, Z. anorg. Chem. 43:416–492 (German).Google Scholar
  102. Meyer, R. J., 1908. Procedure for the production of scandium or scandium compounds from minerals, German patent 202.523 (German). CA 3:530.Google Scholar
  103. Meyer, R. J. and Koss, M., 1902. On scandium, Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 2:2622–2626 (German).Google Scholar
  104. Meyer, R. J., and Schweig, B., 1919. On scandium, Z. anorg. algem. Chem. 108:303–317 (German).Google Scholar
  105. Meyer, R. J., Wassjuchnow, A., Drapier, N., and Bodländer, E., 1914. On scandium. Summary, its occurrence, production and chemistry, Z. anorg. Chem. 86:257–290 (German).Google Scholar
  106. Mines, G. R., 1910. The action of beryllium, lanthanum, yttrium and cerium on the frog’s hearth, J. Physiol. 40:327–346.Google Scholar
  107. Mines, G. R., 1911. The action of trivalent ions on living cells and on colloidal systems. 2. Simple and complex cations, J. Physiol. 42:309–331.Google Scholar
  108. Mironov, K. E., and Chemikova, L. A, 1970. Bibliography on Rare Earth Elements. Including Scandium and Yttrium, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  109. Mitchell, R. L., 1948. Trace constituents in soils and plants. Their significance and spectrographic determination, Research 1:159–165.Google Scholar
  110. Moeller, T., and Kremers, H. E., 1945. The basicity characteristics of scandium, yttrium and the REE, Chem. Rev. 37:97–159.Google Scholar
  111. Muthmann, W, and Böhm, C., 1900. A new method of separating gadolinites and the production of pure yttria, Berichte 33:42–49 (German).Google Scholar
  112. Nagata, M., 1954. Minor inorganic elements in plants. Sci. Repts, Osaka Univ. 3:53–70.Google Scholar
  113. Nagelschmidt, G., Nelson, E. S., King, E. J., Attygalle, D., and Yoganathan, M., 1957. The recovery of quartz and other minerals from the lungs of rats, Arch. Ind. Health 16:188–202.Google Scholar
  114. Nilson, L. E, 1879a. On scandium, a. new element, Ofv. Kgl. Swensk Vet. Akad. Forh. 36:47–51 (Swedish).Google Scholar
  115. Nilson, L. E, 1879b. On scandium, a new earth metal Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 12:554–557 (German).Google Scholar
  116. Nilson, L. E, 1879c. On scandium, a new element C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 88:645–648 (French).Google Scholar
  117. Nilson, L. E, 1880. The atomic weight and some characteristic compounds of scandium, Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Gess. 13:1439–1450 (German).Google Scholar
  118. Noddack, I., and Noddack, W, 1938. Occurrence of heavy metals in marine animals, Arkiv Zoologi 32A:1–35 (German).Google Scholar
  119. Oftedal, I. 1943. Scandium in biotite as a geologic thermometer, Norsk. Geol. Tidskr. 23:202–213Google Scholar
  120. Pattin, H. S., 1937. The extreme ultraviolet spectra of scandium, PhD thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana.Google Scholar
  121. Petru, E, Prochazka, V, and Hajek, B, 1958. Production of metallic scandium in compact form, Coll. Czech. Chem. Comm. 23:367–371 (German).Google Scholar
  122. Pokras, L., and Bemays, P. M., 1951. Determination of scandium with 8-quinolinol, Anal. Chem. 23:757–759.Google Scholar
  123. Prichard, H. L., Bridgman, J. E, and Blechen, N. M., 1970. An investigation of radioactive 90Y for the treatment of chronic knee effusions, Br. J. Radiol. 43:466–470.Google Scholar
  124. Proust, 1834, cited by S. E Mason, S. E, 1991. Chemical Evolution. Origin of the Elements, Molecules and Living Systems, Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  125. Quill, L. L., 1932. Z. anorg. algem. Chem. 208:59–62.Google Scholar
  126. Quill, L. L., and Rodden, C. J., 1950. Scandium, yttrium and the rare earths, in: Analytical Chemistry of the Manhattan Project (C. J. Rodden et al., eds.), McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, pp. 494–508.Google Scholar
  127. Rainer, B., Tutt, N., and Vaughan, J., 1953. The deposition of91 Y in rabbit bones, Br J. Exper. Pathol. 34:138–145.Google Scholar
  128. Rediske, J. H., and Selders, A. A., 1955. The uptake and translocation of yttrium by higher plants, Am. J. Bot. 41:238–242.Google Scholar
  129. Robinson, W. 0., 1943. The occurrence of rare earths in plants and soils, Soil Sci. 56:1–6.Google Scholar
  130. Robinson, W O., Whetstone, R., and Scribner, B. E, 1938. The presence of rare earth elements in hickory leaves, Science 87:470.Google Scholar
  131. Rosoff, B., Lewin, R., Hart, H. E., Williams, G. L., and Laszlo, D., 1958. Interaction of yttrium compounds with serum and serum constituents in vitro, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 78:1–9.Google Scholar
  132. Sarkar, P. B., 1927. Analysis of scandium with the lanthanides, and with the iron and aluminum family of elements, Ann. Chim. 8:207–262.Google Scholar
  133. Savitsky, E. M., Terekhova, V. E, Naumkin, O. P., and Burov, I. V, 1963. Preparation of single crystals of scandium, yttrium and gadolinium, Tsvet Met. 5:51–53 (Russian).Google Scholar
  134. Sayre, E. V, Murrenhoff, A., and Wick, C. E, 1958. The nondestructive analysis of ancient potsherds through neutron activation, US Atomic Energy Comm. BNL-508.Google Scholar
  135. Scheer, K. E., 1956. 90Y as an irradiation source for intraperitoneal and intrapleural application, Strahlentherapie 101:283–288.Google Scholar
  136. Scheinberg, D. A., 1996, personal communication cited by M. Strand, 1996, with permission.Google Scholar
  137. Schetelig, J., 1911. On thortveitite, a new mineral, Zbl. Mineral. Geol. Paläontol. 721–726 (German).Google Scholar
  138. Schubert, J., Finkel, M. P, White, M. R., and Hirsch, G. M., 1950. Plutonium and yttrium content of the blood, liver and skeleton of the rat at different times after intravenous administration, J Biol Chem. 182:635–642.Google Scholar
  139. Schweitzer, G. K., Stein, B. R. and Jackson, W. M., 1955. The radiocolloidal properties of 90Y, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75:793–795.Google Scholar
  140. Shchukarev, S. A., 1924. A system on the chemical elements and isotopes, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 55:447–476. CA 19:2762–2763.Google Scholar
  141. Siegel, E. P, Hart, H. E., Brothers, M., Spencer, H., and Laszlo, D., 1956. Radio-yttrium for the palliative treatment of effusions due to malignancy, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 161:499–503.Google Scholar
  142. Smith, N. H., 1927. The atomic weight of scandium. PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  143. Söderbaum, H. G., 1934. Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  144. Spedding, F. H., Fulmer, E. I., Butler, T. A., Gladrow, E. M., Gobush, M., Porter, P. E., Powell, J. E., and Wright, J. M., 1947. Separation of rare earth elements by ion exchange, J Am. Chem. Soc. 69:2812–2818.Google Scholar
  145. Spedding, E H., Daane, A. H., and Herrmann, K. W, 1956. The crystal structures and lattice parameters of high-purity scandium, yttrium and the REE, Acta Crystallogr. 9:559–563.Google Scholar
  146. Spencer, H., 1960. A study of strontium, calcium and rare earth elements metabolism in humans, Annu Rep. Montefiore Hospital, New York, pp. 1–121.Google Scholar
  147. Speter, M., 1911. Direct separation of scandium from mixtures with other rare Earths, German patent 282657. CA 9:2299.Google Scholar
  148. Spooner, M. A., 1949. Observations on the absorption of radioactive strontium and yttrium by marine algae, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 28:587–625.Google Scholar
  149. Stannard, J. N., 1988. Radioactivity and Health. A History, Pacific NW Laboratory, San Diego.Google Scholar
  150. Steidle, H., and Ding, H., 1929. Contribution to the pharmacology of rare earth elements. 2. Yttrium, Arch. Exper. Pathol. Pharmakol. 141:273–279 (German).Google Scholar
  151. Steinberg, R. A., 1939. Relation of carbon nutrition to trace elements and accessory requirements of Aspergillus niger,.1 Agric. Res. 59:749–763.Google Scholar
  152. Sterba-Böhm, J. S., 1914. Contribution to the knowledge of scandium, Z. Elektrochem. 20:289–295 (German).Google Scholar
  153. Sterba-Böhm, J. S., and Sterba-Böhm, J. P., 1938. The carbonates of scandium, Coll. Tray. Chim. Tchech. 10:8–19 (German).Google Scholar
  154. Stoff, H. B., Fanton, J. E, and Williams, R. H., eds., 1991. The Manhattan Project, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  155. Stout, P. R., Overstreet, R., and Jacobson, L., 1947. The use of radioactive tracers in plant nutrition studies, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 12:91–97.Google Scholar
  156. Szabadvary, E, 1966. History of Analytical Chemistry, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  157. Szabadvary, E, 1988. The history of the discovery and separation of the REE, in: Handbook of the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (K. A. Gschneidner, Jr. and L. Eyring, eds.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, Vol. 11, pp. 33–80.Google Scholar
  158. Tantar, S., and Voryansky, I., 1910. Specific heat of pure yttrium oxide, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 42:96–102.Google Scholar
  159. Thalen, T. R., 1879. Spectral analysis of a new earth C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 88:646–647 (French).Google Scholar
  160. Thalen, T. R., 1880. On the brilliant rays of scandium, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 91:45–49 (French).Google Scholar
  161. Urbain, G., and Sarkar, P. B. 1927. Analogies of scandium with the REE and with the tervalent elements of the iron family, C. R. Acad Sci. Paris 185:593–596 (French).Google Scholar
  162. Urbain, P., and Urbain, G., 1922. Extraction and purification of scandium from the thortveitite of Madagascar, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 174:1310–1313 (French).Google Scholar
  163. Van Spronsen, J. W, 1969. The Periodic System of Chemical Elements, A History of the First Hundred Years, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  164. Vemadsky, V. I Ross. 1908. On the occurrence of scandium, Izv Ross. Akad. Nauk 2:1273–1274 (Russian).Google Scholar
  165. Vickery, R. C., 1960. The Chemistry of Yttrium and Scandium, Pergamon Press, New york.Google Scholar
  166. Vinogradov, A. P., 1935. The elementary chemical composition of organisms and the periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev Tr. Biogeochem Lab. Akad. Nauk SSSR 3:5–30 (Russian).Google Scholar
  167. Vogt, J. H. L., 1898. The geochemical abundance of chemical elements, Z. Prakt. Geol. 6:225–258; 314–327 (German).Google Scholar
  168. Walbum, L. E., and Berthelsen, K., 1925. The role of metal salts in the activity of blood lipase, Z. Immunitäts. 42:467–476 (German).Google Scholar
  169. Walke, H., 1937. The induced radioactivity of scandium, Phys. Rev. 52:669–673.Google Scholar
  170. Walke, H., 1940. The radioactive isotopes of scandium and their properties, Phys. Rev 57:163–171.Google Scholar
  171. White, M. R., and Schubert, J., 1952. The action of salts of zirconium and other metals on plutonium and yttrium distribution and excretion, J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 104:317–324.Google Scholar
  172. Winsberg, L., 1944–1951. Search for triple fission: Scandium, in: Radiochemical Studies. The Fission Products (C. D. Coryell, ed.,), McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 485–486.Google Scholar
  173. Winter, A. H., 1911, Occurrence and extraction of scandium, PhD thesis,University of Berlin. Wittig, J., 1970. Pressure-induced superconductivity in cesium and yttrium, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24:812–815.Google Scholar
  174. Wu, M. K., 1993, Some recent developments in high temperature superconductor oxides, Mat. Chem. Phys. 34:185–200.Google Scholar
  175. Yuan, T, 1955. The accumulation and distribution of scandium, chromium, iodine, cerium, and thallium in the corn plant, J. Agr. Assoc. China 9:67–72.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaim T. Horovitz
    • 1
  1. 1.RehovotIsrael

Personalised recommendations