Environmental Approaches to Recovery of Function from Brain Damage: A Review of Animal Studies (1981 to 1991)

  • Bruno Will
  • Christian Kelche
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 325)


During the sixties and seventies there has been a major shift in our beliefs about brain plasticity and, more specifically, about the effects of environment on both brain and behavior. This shift in beliefs concerns not only intact subjects in the course of development and adaptation but also, more recently, subjects having sustained brain or spinal cord injury. During the late seventies it became clear that the environment may play an important role in brain-damaged subjects, and this has led to an effort to “treat” disturbances induced by central nervous system (CNS) injury by means of environmental “therapy” (e.g. references 25,33,44,87). In 1981, at the first E.B.B.S. workshop on “recovery of function from brain damage”, we came to the conclusion that “there exists .... strong evidence that a postoperative or post-traumatic enriched experience significantly aids functional recovery after various kinds of brain injuries”, but we also acknowledged and even stressed “that a few studies have also obtained negative findings”88. In this latter case, we were referring to studies which failed to demonstrate any beneficial effects of postoperative enrichment or sensory stimulation.


Environmental Enrichment Brain Damage Septal Lesion Spontaneous Alternation Enrich Condition 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno Will
    • 1
  • Christian Kelche
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Biologie des ComportementsUPR 419 du CNRS, Centre de NeurochimieStrasbourgFrance

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