Advertisement

Design and optimization of solid-state microbatteries

  • Christian Julien
  • Gholam-Abbas Nazri
Chapter
  • 464 Downloads
Part of the The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 271)

Abstract

A battery is a device that converts the chemical energy contained in its active materials directly into electrical energy by means of an electrochemical oxidation-reduction reaction, also called redox reaction. This type of reaction involves the transfer of electrons from one material to another through an internal circuit.

Keywords

Solid Electrolyte Cell Voltage Intercalation System Chemical Diffusion Intercalation Compound 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References for chapter 1

  1. 1.
    A. Volta, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 90 (1800) 403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Planté, C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 50 (1860) 640.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The first Leclanché cell consisted of an amalgamated zinc bar serving as the negative electrode, a solution of ammonium chloride as electrolyte, and a one-to-one mixture of manganese dioxide and powdered carbon packed around a carbon rod as the positive electrode.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Jensen, Energy Storage, Butterworths Co. Publ. Ltd., London, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B.B. Owens, J.E. Oxley and A.F. Sammells, Topics Appl. Phys., 21 (1977) 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ]6
    D. Shahi, J.B. Wagner and B.B. Owens, in: J.P. Gabano (Ed.), Lithium Batteries, Academic Press, New York, 1983, p. 407.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.R. Akridge and H. Vourlis, Solid State Ionics, 18-19 (1986) 1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Armand, in: P. Vashishta, J.N. Mundy and G.K. Shenoy (Eds.), Fast Ion Transport in Solids, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979, p.131.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Julien and M. Balkanski, in: J.R. Akridge and M. Balkanski (Eds), Micro-Solid-State Batteries, NATO-ASI Series, Ser.B217, Plenum, New York, 1990, p.233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.H. Kennedy, Thin Solid Films, 43 (1977) 41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Julien, Mater. Sci. Eng. B, 6 (1990) 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Crouzet, P. Schnell, G. Velasco and J. Siejka, J. Appl. Phys., 48 (1977) 775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Crouzet, P. Schnell, G. Velasco and J. Siejka, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 14 (1977) 777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Schnell, G. Velasco and P. Colomban, Solid State Ionics, 5 (1981) 291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.H. Kennedy and F. Chen, J. Electrochem. Soc., 118 (1971) 1043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    For a complete review, see: D. Linden (Ed.), Handbook of Batteries and Fuel Cells, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C.A. Vincent, B. Scrosati, F. Lazzari and F. Bonino, Modern Batteries, Edward Arnold Publ., London (1984).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. Mantell, Batteries and Energy Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S.M. Caulder and A.C. Simon, in: D.W. Murphy, J. Broadhead and B.C.H. Steele (Eds.), Materials for Advanced Batteries, Plenum Press, New York, 1980, p. 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Ruetschi, J. Power Sources, 2 (1977/78) 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.U. Falk, in: D. Linden (Ed.), Handbook of Batteries and Fuel Cells, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984, p. 16-1.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    R.M. Dell, in: C.A.C. Sequeira and A. Hooper (Eds.), Solid State Batteries, NATO-ASI Series, Ser. E101, Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Dordrecht, 1985, p. 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    The first Na/S battery was realized at the Ford Motor Co., at Dearborn. For a review, for example, see: J.A. Asher, in: P. Vashishta, J.N. Mundy and G.K. Shenoy (Eds.), Fast Ion Transport in Solids, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979, p.39.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. Nagaura, Paper presented at the 4th International Rechargeable Battery Seminar, Deerfield Beach, FL, 1990.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.R. Dahn, U. von Saken and R. Fong, J. Electrochem. Soc., 137 (1990) 369C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y. Nishi, H. Azuma and A. Omura, U.S. Patent. 4,959,281 (1990).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M.S. Whittingham, Science, 192 (1976) 1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Armand, in: D.W. Murphy, J. Broadhead and B.C.H. Steele (Eds.), Materials for Advanced Batteries, Plenum Press, New York, 1980, p. 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    W.R. McKinnon and R.R. Haering, in: R.E. White, J. O’M. Bockris and B.E. Conway (Eds.), Modem Aspects of Electrochemistry, vol. 15, Plenum Publ., New York, 1983, p. 235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Atlung, in: C.A.C. Sequeira and A. Hooper (Eds.), Solid State Batteries, NATO-ASI Series, Ser. E101, Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Dordrecht, 1985, p. 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Rouxel, in: A.P. Legrand and S. Flandrois (Eds.), Chemical Physics of Intercalation, NATO-ASI-Series, Ser. B 172, Plenum Press, New York, 1987, p. 127.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    M.S. Whittingham, J. Electrochem. Soc., 123 (1976) 1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M.S. Whittingham, Prog. Solid St. Chem., 12 (1978) 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    B.C.H Steele, in: W. Van Gool (Ed.), Fast Ion Transport in Solids, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1973, p. 103.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Heyne, in: W. Van Gool (Ed.), Fast Ion Transport in Solids, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1973, p. 123.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.W. Murphy and P.A. Christian, Science, 205 (1979) 651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    A.H. Thompson, J. Electrochem Soc., 126 (1979) 608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    A.J. Berlinsky, W.G. Unruh, W.R. McKinnon, and R.R. Haering, Solid State Commun., 31 (1979) 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    F. Dalard, D. Deroo, A. Sellani, R. Manger and J. Mercier, Solid State Ionics, 7 (1982) 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A.S. Nagelberg and W.L. Worrell, J. Solid State Chem., 29 (1979) 345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    S.E. Millman and G. Kirczenow, Phys. Rev. B, 28 (1983) 3482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. Osorio and L.M. Falicov, J. Phys. Chem.Solids, 43 (1982) 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M.B. Armand, PhD dissertation, University of Grenoble (1978).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    D.A. Winn, J.M. Shemilt and B.C.H. Steele, Mat. Res. Bull. 11 (1976) 559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    P.G. Dickens, S.J. French, A.T. Hight and M.F. Pye, Mate. Res. Bull., 14 (1979) 1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M.A. Py and R.R. Haering, Can J. Phys., 61 (1983) 76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    A.H. Thompson, J.C. Scanlon and C.R. Symon, Solid State Ionics, 1 (1980) 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    S. Atlung, K. West and T. Jacobsen, in: D.W. Murphy, J. Broadhead and B.C.H. Steele (Eds.), Materials for Advanced Batteries, Plenum Press, New York, 1980, p. 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    T. Jacobson, K. West and S. Atlung, J. Electrochem. Soc., 126 (1979) 2169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    S. Atlung, B. Zachau-Christiansen, K. West and T. Jacobsen, J. Electrochem. Soc., 131 (1984) 1200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    K. West, S. Atlung and T. Jacobsen, J. Electrochem. Soc., 129 (1982) 2875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    S. Atlung, T. Jacobsen, K. West and B. Zachau-Christiansen, in: W.D. Luz, and H.G. Müller (Eds.), Electrochemishe Verfaren, Dechema Monographien, 109 (1987) 333.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    S. Basu and W.L. Worrell, in: P. Vashishta, J.N. Mundy and G.K. Shenoy (Eds.), Fast Ion Transport in Solids, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979, p. 149.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    I. Samaras, S.I. Saikh, C. Julien and M. Balkanski, Mater. Sci. Eng. B, 3 (1989) 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    C. Delmas, A. Maazaz, C. Fouassier, J.M. Reau and P. Hagenmuller, Mat. Res. Bull., 14 (1979) 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    T.J. Hibma, J. Solid State Chem., 34 (1980) 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    T.J. Hibma, in: M.S. Whittingham and A.J. Jacobson (Eds.), Intercalation Chemistry, Academic Press, New York, 1982, p. 285.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    H.A. Hallak and P.A. Lee, Solid State Commun., 47 (1983) 503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    W.Y. Liang, in: M.S. Dresselhaus (Ed.), Intercalation in Layered Materials, NATO-ASI Series, Ser. B 148, Plenum Press, New York, 1986, p. 31.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    A.H. Thompson and C.R. Symon, Solid State Ionics, 3-4 (1981) 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    W. Weppner and R.A. Huggins, J. Bectrochem. Soc., 124 (1977) 1569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. Honders, E.W.A. Young, A.H. Van Heeren, J.H.W. de Wit and G.H.J. Broers, Solid State Ionics, 14 (1984) 205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    A. Honders and G.H.J. Broers, Solid State Ionics, 15 (1985) 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. Honders, A.J.H. Hintzen, E.W.A. Young, J.H.W, de Wit and G.H.J. Broers, Solid State Ionics, 15 (1985) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    A. Honders, J.M. der Kinderen, A.H. Van Heeren, J.H.W, de Wit and G.H.J. Broers, Solid State Ionics, 15 (1985) 265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    A. Honders, E.W.A. Young, A.J.H. Hintzen, J.H.W, de Wit and G.H.J. Broers, Solid State Ionics, 15 (1985) 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1967.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    C. Julien, E. Hatzikraniotis and M. Balkanski, Mater. Letters, 4 (1986) 401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    C. Julien and E. Hatzikraniotis, Mater. Letters, 5 (1987) 134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    A.H. Thompson, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 54 (1983) 229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    R.A. Huggins, in: P. Vashishta, J.N. Mundy and G.K. Shenoy (Eds.), Fast Ion Transport in Solids, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979, p. 53.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    L. Balewski and J.P. Brunet, Bectrochem. Technol., 5 (1967) 527.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    A.H. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett., 40 (1978) 1511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    C.R.A. Clauss band H.E. Schweigart, J. Bectrochem. Soc, 123 (1976) 951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    J.R. Dahn and W.R. McKinnon, J. Bectrochem. Soc, 131 (1984) 1823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    S.T. Coleman, W.R. McKinnon and J.R. Dahn, Phys. Rev. B, 29 (1984) 4147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    K. West, T. Jacobsen, B. Zachau-Christiansen and S. Atlung, Electrochim. Acta, 28 (1983) 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    J.R. Dahn and R.R. Haering, Solid State Ionics, 2 (1981) 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    B.E. Conway, J. Electrochem. Soc, 127 (1980) 1319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    W.R. McKinnon and J.R. Dahn, Solid State Commun., 52 (1984) 245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    W.R. McKinnon and J.R. Dahn, Phys. Rev. B, 31 (1985) 3084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    C. Julien, I. Samaras and A. Chevy, Solid State Ionics, 36 (1989) 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    C. Julien, I. Samaras and G. Mouget, in: M. Balkanski (Ed.), Microionics, Solid-State Integrable Batteries, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991, p. 397.Google Scholar
  84. 84 B.C.H. Steele, in: C.A.C. Sequeira and A. Hooper, Solid State Batteries, NATO-ASI Series, Ser. E 101, Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Dordrecht, 1985, p. 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    N.F. Mott and E.A. Davis, Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1971.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    C. Julien and M. Balkanski, in: M. Balkanski (Ed.), Microionics-Solid-State Integrable Batteries, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991, p. 3.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    S. Atlung and K. West, J. Power Sources, 26 (1989) 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    P.C. Klipstein, C.M. Pereira and R.H. Friend, in: J.V. Acrivos, N.F. Mott and A.D. Yoffe (Eds.), Physics and Chemistry of Electrons and Ions in Condensed Matter, NATO-ASI Series, Ser. C130, D. Reidel Publ., Dordrecht, 1984, p. 549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    S.I. Saikh, PhD. Dissertation, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, 1989.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    For example, see in the Series: Physics and Chemistry of Materials with Layered Structures, vol.4, P.A. Lee (Ed.), Optical and Electrical Properties, R. Reidel Publ., Dordrecht, 1976.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    J.E. Fisher, in: F. Lévy (Ed.), Intercalated Layered Materials, vol. 6, R. Reidel Publ., Dordrecht, 1977, p. 481.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    P. Blood and J.W. Orton, The Electrical Characterization of Semiconductors, Academic Press, London, 1992.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    T.R. Jow and C.C. Liang, Solid State Ionics, 9-10 (1983) 695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    S. Skaarup, in: S. Radhakrishna and A. Daud (Eds), Solid-State Materials, Narosa Publ., New Delhi, 1991, p. 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    J. O’M. Bockris and A. Reddy, Modern Electrochemistry, Plenum Press, New York, 1974, p. 1007.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Q. Liu and W.L. Worrell, Solid State Ionics, 28-30 (1988) 1419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    M. Visbisky, R.C. Stinebring and C.F. Holmes, J. Power Sources, 26 (1989) 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    T.R. Jow and C.C. Liang, J. Electrochem. Soc., 130 (1983) 737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    U. von Alphen and M.F. Bell, Solid State Ionics, 3-4 (1981) 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    C. Berthier, M. Fouletier, R.R. Haering, D.W. Murphy, J. Rouxel, B.C. Tofield, W. Weppner, M.S. Whittingham and W.L. Worrell, in: D.W. Murphy, J. Broadhead and B.C.H. Steele (Eds.), Materials for Advanced Batteries, Plenum Publ., New York, 1980, 343.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    J.B. Goodenough, in: J.R. Akridge and M. Balkanski (Eds), Solid-State Microbatteries, NATO-ASI Series, Ser. B217, Plenum Press, New York, 1990, p. 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    H.L. Tuller and M.W. Barsoum, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 73 (1985) 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    M. Barsoum, in: H.L. Tuller and M. Balkanski (Eds.), Science and Technology of Fast Ion Conductors, NATO-ASI Series, Ser. B199, Plenum Press, New York, 1989, p. 241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    S.L. Shue and H.L. Tuller, Solid State Ionics, 40-41 (1990) 693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    M.H. Velez, H.L. Tuller and D.R. Uhlmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 49 (1982) 351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    C. Julien, M. Massot, M. Balkanski and H.L. Tuller, in: K.M. Nair (Ed.), Glasses for Electronic Applications, The American Ceramic Soc., Westerville, 1991, p. 51.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    U. von Alphen, A. Rabenau and G.H. Talat, Appl. Phys. Lett., 30 (1977) 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    P.A.G. O’Hare and G.K. Johnson, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 7 (1975) 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    W. Weppner, in: J.R. Akridge and M. Balkanski (Eds.), Solid-State Microbatteries, NATO-ASI Series, Ser. B217, Plenum Press, New York, 1990, p. 371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    K. Ploog, in: H.C. Freyhardt (Ed.), Crystals Growth, Properties and Applications, vol. 3, Springer, Heidelberg, 1980, p. 73.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    P. Dzwonkowski, M. Eddrief, C. Julien and M. Balkanski, in: G.A. Nazri, R.A. Huggins, D. Schreiber and M. Balkanski (Eds.), Solid State Ionics II, Mat. Res. Symp. Proc. vol. 210, Mat. Res. Soc., Pittsburgh, 1991, p. 633.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    R.Z. Bachrach, in: B.R. Pamplin (Ed.), Crystal Growth, Pergamon, Oxford, 1980, p. 221.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    E.C.H. Parker, in: E.C.H. Parker (Ed.), Technology and Physics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Plenum, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    R.E. Honing and D.A. Kramer, RCA Rev., 30 (1969) 285.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    J.Y. Emery, C. Julien, M. Jouanne and M. Balkanski, Appl. Surf. Sci., 33-34 (1988) 619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    C. Julien, N. Benramdane and J.P. Guesdon, Semicond. Sci. Technol., 5 (1990) 905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    J.Y. Emery, L. Brahim-Ostmane, M. Jouanne, C. Julien and M. Balkanski, Mater. Sci. Eng. B, 3 (1989) 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    G.J. Davis and D. Williams, in: E.C.H. Parker (Ed.), The Technology and Physics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Plenum, New York, 1981, p. 15.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    C.C. Liang, J. Epstein and G.H. Boyle, J. Electrochem. Soc., 116 (1969) 1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    J.W. Geus, in: W. Van Gool (Ed.), Fast Ion Transport in Solids, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1973, p. 331.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    P. Chaudhari, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 9 (1972) 520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    C. Julien, M. Eddrief, K. Kambas and M. Balkanski, Thin Solid Films, 137 (1986) 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    M. Eddrief, C. Julien, M. Balkanski and K. Kambas, Materials Letters, 2 (1984) 432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    C. Julien, M. Eddrief, M. Balkanski, E. Hatzikraniotis and K. Kambas, Phys. Status Solidi A, 88 (1985) 641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    R. Bichsel and F. Lévy, Thin Solid Films, 124 (1985) 75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    R. Bichsel and F. Lévy, J. Phys. D, 19 (1986) 1809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    A.D. Souder and D.E. Brodie, Can. J. Phys., 50 (1972) 2724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    J.P. Guesdon, C. Julien and M. Balkanski and A. Chevy, Phys. Status Solidi A, 101 (1987) 495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    J.P. Guesdon, A. Kobbi, C. Julien, M. Balkanski, Phys. Status Solidi A, 102 (1987) 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    K.C. Nagpal and S.Z. Ali, Acta Cryst. A, 31 (1975) 567.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    T. Takahashi and O. Yamamoto, US. Patent, 3,558357 (1971).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    J.H. Kennedy, F. Chen and J. Hunter, J. Electrochem. Soc., 120 (1973) 454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Y. Ito, K. Yakushiro, M. Hiratani, K. Miyauchi and T. Kudo, Solid State Ionics, 18-19 (1986) 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    M.R. Arora and E. Giani, Thin Solid Films, 71 (1980) 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    M.R. Arora and J. Childo, J. Electrochem. Soc., 123 (1976) 222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    M.R. Arora, Thin Solid Films, 71 (1980) 255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    T. Minami and H. Kaneko, Solid State Ionics, 17 (1985) 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    A. Levasseur, M. Kbala, P. Hagenmuller, G. Couturier and Y. Danto, Solid State Ionics, 9-10 (1983) 1439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    K. Kanehori, K. Matsumoto, K. Miyauchi and T. Kudo, Solid State Ionics, 9-10 (1983) 1445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    K. Miyauchi, K. Matsumoto, K. Kanehori and T. Kudo, Solid State Ionics, 9-10 (1983) 1469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    S. Chandra and V.K. Mohabey, Phys. Status Solidi A, 53 (1979) 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    S.A. Suthanthiraraj and S. Radhakrishna, Solid State Ionics, 20 (1986) 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    T. Minami, in: B.V.R. Chowdari and S. Radhakrishna (Eds.), Materials for Solid State Batteries, World Scientific, Singapore, 1986, p. 181.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    L.W. Zhang, M. Kobayashi and K. Goto, Solid State Ionics, 18-19 (1986) 741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    L.W. Zhang, M. Yahagi and K. Goto, Solid State Ionics, 18-19 (1986) 1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    R. Gland and L.V. Gregor, in: L.I. Maissel and R. Gland (Eds.), Handbook of Thin Film Technology, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970, p. 7.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    F.E. Swindells and W.R. Lanier, U.S. Patent, 3, 547, 700 (1970).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Julien
    • 1
  • Gholam-Abbas Nazri
    • 2
  1. 1.Université Pierre et Marie CurieFrance
  2. 2.General Motors Research LaboratoriesUSA

Personalised recommendations