Proton MR Spectroscopic Imaging in The Investigation of Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

  • F. Cendes
  • F. Andermann
  • D. L. Arnold
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 264)


MR spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive technique that allows direct identification and quantitation of certain cerebral metabolites in vivo without the injection of radionuclides. Initial studies on small numbers of patients using phosphorus MRS demonstrated a relative alkalosis and an increase in inorganic phosphate in the temporal lobe responsible for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (Kuzniecky et al, 1992; Laxer et al., 1992). Proton MRS has the advantage of much greater signal-to-noise ratio and, therefore, greater spatial resolution compared to phosphorus spectroscopy. Proton MRS studies reported to date have revealed a reduced N-acetylaspartate (NAA) relative resonance intensity in the temporal lobes of patients with TLE (Cendes et al., 1994; Matthews et al., 1990; Laxer et al., 1992).


Temporal Lobe Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patient Resonance Intensity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnold, D. L., 1992, Reversible reduction of N-acetylaspartate after acute central nervous system damage, Proc Soc Magn Reson Med. 11: 643 (abstract).Google Scholar
  2. Arnold, D. L., Matthews, P. M., Francis, G. S., O’Connor, J., and Antel, J. P., 1992, Proton Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging for metabolic characterization of demyelinating plaques, Ann Neurol. 31: 235–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babb, T. L., and Brown, W. J., 1987, Pathological findings in epilepsy, in: “Surgical treatment of the epilepsies,” Engel J, Jr, ed., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Birken, D. L., and Oldendorf, W. H., 1989, N-Acetyl-L-aspartic acid: a literature review of a compound prominent in 1H-NMR spectroscopic studies of brain, Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 13: 23–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruhn, H., Frahm, J., Gyngell, M. L., Merboldt, K. D., Hanicke, W., and Sauter, R., 1989, Cerebral metabolism in man after acute stroke: new observations using localised proton NMR spectroscopy, Magn Reson Med. 9: 126–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruton, C. J., 1988, “The Neuropathology of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy,” Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Cendes, F., Andermann, F., Preul, M., and Arnold, D. L., 1994, Focal metabolic abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy demonstrated by proton MR spectroscopic imaging Ann Neurol. 35: 211–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coyle, J. T., Robinson, M. B., Blakely, R. D., and Forloni, G-L., 1989, The neurobiology of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate, in: “Allosteric modulation of amino acid receptors: therapeutic implications,” E. A. Barnard and E. Costa, eds, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Duijn, J. H., Matson, G. B., Maudsley, A. A., Hugg, J. W., and Weiner, M. W., 1992, Human brain infarction: proton MR spectroscopy, Radiology 183: 711–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fenstermacher, M. J., and Narayana, P. A., 1990, Serial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of ischemic brain injury in humans, Invest Radiol. 25: 1034–1039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gill, S. S., Small, R. K., Thomas, D. G., et al., 1989, Brain metabolites as 1H NMR markers of neuronal and glial disorders, NMR Biomed. 2: 196–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gloor, P., 1991, Mesial temporal sclerosis: historical background and an overview from a modern perspective, in: “Epilepsy Surgery,” H. Luders, ed., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Graham, G. D., Blamire, A. M., Howseman, A. M., et al., 1992, Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cerebral lactate and other metabolites in stroke patients, Stroke 23: 333–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hanstock, C. C., Rothman, D. L., Prichard, J. W., Jue, T., and Shulman, R. G., 1988, Spatially localised 1H NMR spectra of metabolites in the human brain, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 1821–1825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kuzniecky, R., Elgavish, G. A., Hetherington, H. P., Evanochko, W. T., and Pohost, G. M., 1992, In vivo 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human temporal lobe epilepsy, Neurology 42: 1586–1590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Laxer, K. D., Hubesch, B., Sappey-Marinier, D., and Weiner, M. W., 1992, Increased pH and inorganic phosphate in temporal seizure foci demonstrated by 31 P MRS, Epilepsia 33: 618–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Matthews, P. M., Andermann, F., and Arnold, D. L., 1990, A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of focal epilepsy in humans, Neurology 40: 985–989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matthews, P. M., Francis, G. S., Antel, J., and Arnold, D. L., 1991, Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for metabolic characterization of plaques in multiple sclerosis, Neurology 41: 1251–1256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Meencke, H. J., and Veith, G., 1991, Hippocampal sclerosis in epilepsy, in: “Epilepsy Surgery,” H. Luders, ed., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Menon, D. K., Sargentoni, J., Peden, C. J., et al., 1990, Proton MR spectroscopy in herpes simplex encephalitis: assessment of neuronal loss, J Comput Assist Tomogr. 14: 449–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Moffet, J. R., Namboodiri, M. A. A., Cangro, C. B., and Neale, J. H., 1991, Immunohistochemical localization of N-acetylaspartate in rat brain, NeuroReport 2: 131–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Petroff, O. A. C., Spencer, D. D., Alger, J. R., and Prichard, J. W., 1989, High-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human cerebrum obtained during surgery for epilepsy, Neurology 39: 1197–1202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Simmons, M. L., Frondoza, C. G., and Coyle, J. T., 1991, Immunocytochemical localization of N-acetyl-aspartate with monoclonal antibodies, Neuroscience 45: 37–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Slopis, J. M., Lin, S., Butler, J. M., and Caprioli, R., 1992, Selective Corelease of N-Acetylaspartylglutamate and N-Acetyl-Aspartate from rat hypothalamus in vivo. Ann Neurol. 32(3): 445–446 (abstract).Google Scholar
  25. Tallen, H. H., 1957, Studies on the distribution of N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid in brain, J Biol Chem. 224: 41–45.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Cendes
    • 1
  • F. Andermann
    • 1
  • D. L. Arnold
    • 1
  1. 1.Montreal Neurological Institute and HospitalMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations